• Abdul-Razzak, H., S. J. Ghan, C. Rivera-Carpio, A parameterization of aerosol activation, 1, Single aerosol type, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 61236132, 1998.
  • Chuang, P. Y., R. J. Charlson, J. H. Seinfeld, Kinetic limitation on droplet formation in clouds, Nature, 390, 594596, 1997.
  • Cohard, J.-M., J.-P. Pinty, C. Bedos, Extending Twomey's analytical estimate of nucleated cloud droplet concentrations from CCN spectra, J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 33483357, 1998.
  • Cruz, C., S. Pandis, A study of the ability of pure secondary organic aerosol to act as cloud condensation nuclei, Atmos. Environ., 31, 22052214, 1997.
  • Cruz, C. N., S. N. Pandis, The effect of organic coatings on the cloud condensation nuclei activation of inorganic atmospheric aerosol, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 1311113123, 1998.
  • Facchini, M. C., M. Mircea, S. Fuzzi, R. J. Charlson, Cloud albedo enhancement by surface-active organic solutes in growing droplets, Nature, 401, 257259, 1999.
  • Ghan, S. J., C. C. Chuang, J. E. Penner, A parameterization of cloud droplet nucleation, part I, Single aerosol species, Atmos. Res., 30, 197222, 1993.
  • Ghan, S. J., C. C. Chuang, R. C. Easter, J. E. Penner, A parameterization of cloud droplet nucleation, part II, Multiple aerosol types, Atmos. Res., 36, 3954, 1995.
  • Ghan, S. J., G. Guzman, H. Abdul-Razzak, Competition between sea salt and sulfate particles as cloud condensation nuclei, J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 33403347, 1998.
  • Hänel, G., The properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as function of the relative humidity at thermodynamic equilibrium with the surrounding moist air, Adv. Geophys., 19, 73188, 1976.
  • Herbert, F., CCN-equilibrium theory, Meteorol. Rundsch., 65, 8287, 1986.
  • Jiusto, J. E., G. G. Lala, CCN-supersaturation spectra slopes (k), J. Rech. Atmos., 15, 303311, 1981.
  • Laaksonen, A., P. Korhonen, M. Kulmala, R. J. Charlson, Modification of the Kohler equation to include soluble trace gases and slightly soluble substances, J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 853862, 1998.
  • Li, Z., A. L. Williams, M. J. Rood, Influence of soluble surfactant properties on the activation of aerosol particlels containing inorganic solute, J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 18591866, 1998.
  • Novakov, T., J. E. Penner, Large contribution of organic aerosols to cloud-condensation-nuclei concentrations, Nature, 365, 823826, 1993.
  • Novakov, T., C. E. Corrigan, J. E. Penner, C. C. Chuang, O. Rosario, L. L. M. Bracero, Organic aerosols in the Carribean trade winds: A natural source?, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 2130721313, 1997.
  • O'Dowd, C. D., M. H. Smith, I. E. Consterdine, J. A. Lowe, Marine aerosol, sea-salt and the marine sulphur cycle: A short review, Atmos. Environ., 311, 7380, 1997.
  • Pruppacher, H. R., J. D. Klett, Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation, 954, Kluwer Acad., Norwell, Mass., 1997.
  • Rivera-Carpio, C. A., C. E. Corrigan, T. Novakov, J. E. Penner, C. F. Rogers, J. C. Chow, Derivation of contributions of sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols to cloud condensation nuclei from mass size distributions, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 1948319493, 1996.
  • Saxena, P., L. Hildemann, P. McMurry, J. H. Seinfeld, Organics alter hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 1875518770, 1995.
  • Seinfeld, J. H., S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 1326, John Wiley, New York, 1998.
  • Shulman, M. L., M. C. Jacobson, R. J. Charlson, R. E. Synovec, T. E. Young, Dissolution behavior and surface tension effects of organic compounds in nucleating cloud droplets, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 277280, 1996.
  • Squires, P., The microstructure and colloidal stability of warm clouds, II, The causes of the variations in microstructure, Tellus, 10, 262271, 1958.
  • Squires, P., S. Twomey, The relation between cloud droplet spectra and the spectrum of cloud nuclei, Physics of Precipitation, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 5H. Weickmann, 211216, AGU, Washington, D.C., 1960.
  • Twomey, S., The nuclei of natural cloud formation, II, The supersaturation in natural clouds and the variation of cloud droplet concentration, Geophys. Pura Appl., 43, 243249, 1959.
  • Von der Emde, K., U. Wacker, Comments on the relationship between aerosol spectra, equilibrium drop size spectra, and CCN spectra, Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 66, 157162, 1993.
  • Whitby, K. T., The physical characteristics of sulfur aerosols, Atmos. Environ., 12, 135159, 1978.