Lunar coordinates in the regions of the Apollo landers
Article first published online: 21 SEP 2012
Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets (1991–2012)
Volume 105, Issue E8, pages 20277–20280, 25 August 2000
How to Cite
2000), Lunar coordinates in the regions of the Apollo landers, J. Geophys. Res., 105(E8), 20277–20280, doi:10.1029/1999JE001165., and (
- Issue published online: 21 SEP 2012
- Article first published online: 21 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 7 DEC 1999
- Manuscript Received: 19 AUG 1999
Laser retroreflectors were placed on the Moon by Apollo 11, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, and Lunakhod 2. Since then, lunar laser ranging retroreflector measurements of the true distances between retroreflectors and Earth-based laser telescopes have been made by recording transit times. The accuracy of these measurements has evolved from 10 cm in the 1970s to 3 cm in the 1990s. Accurate lunar coordinates of the retroreflectors were determined from these measurements [Williams et al., 1996]. Apollo lunar surface experiment packages (ALSEP) were delivered to the lunar surface on missions 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17. Coordinates of these stations were determined from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements of their transmissions. The VLBI measurements were combined with the laser-ranging coordinates available at that time [King et al., 1976]. These solutions for the ALSEP locations have been modified to be compatible with the current retroreflector solutions. Coordinates of lunar module locations and nearby craters are given.