Deep water in the late Maastrichtian ocean
Article first published online: 28 FEB 2002
Copyright 2002 by the American Geophysical Union.
Volume 17, Issue 1, pages 8-1–8-11, February 2002
How to Cite
Deep water in the late Maastrichtian ocean, Paleoceanography, 17(1), doi:10.1029/1999PA000486, 2002., and ,
- Issue published online: 28 FEB 2002
- Article first published online: 28 FEB 2002
- Manuscript Accepted: 5 SEP 2001
- Manuscript Revised: 8 AUG 2001
- Manuscript Received: 29 NOV 2000
- oxygen isotopes;
- deep water
 Stable isotopic data from benthic foraminifera indicate the occurrence of at least three deepwater masses in the late Maastrichtian ocean. Given mean oceanic δ18Ow of −1.0‰, the temperature of the coolest intermediate-depth waters was 5°–7°C, that of the deepest waters was 10°C, and that of the warmest intermediate waters was 13°–15°C. The cool intermediate-depth water mass probably originated in the high-latitude Southern Ocean. The deepest waters originated at least partly in the northern Atlantic. The source region for the warmest intermediate-depth water mass is unknown. Although much of the late Maastrichtian deep water was probably preconditioned for winter sinking by low- or middle-latitude evaporation, no more than ∼11% of late Maastrichtian deep water could have been directly actuated by low-latitude sea surface evaporation. At least in the southern Atlantic and Indian Oceans, heat transport by upwelling of deep water was not the primary cause of mild sea surface and coastal temperatures.