• Bernard, R., A. LeCornec, L. Eymard, and L. Tabary, The microwave radiometer aboard ERS-1, part I, Characteristics and performances, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 31, 11861198, 1993.
  • Bjerkaas, A., and F. Riedel, Proposed model for the elevation spectrum of a wind-roughned sea surface, Tech. Memo. JHU/APL TG 1328, 31 pp., Appl. Phys. Lab., Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, Md., 1979.
  • Droppleman, J., Apparent microwave emissivity of sea foam, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 696698, 1970.
  • Eymard, L., Introduction: The SEMAPHORE experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 25,00525,008, 1998.
  • Eymard, L., L. Tabary, E. Gérard, S. Boukabara, and A. LeCornec, The microwave radiometer aboard ERS-1, part II, Validation of the geophysical products, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 34, 291303, 1996.
  • Goldfinger, A., Refraction of microwave signals by water vapor, J. Geophys. Res., 85, 49044912, 1980.
  • Guillou, C., W. Ellison, L. Eymard, K. Lamkaouchi, C. Prigent, G. Delbos, G. Balana, and S. Boukabara, Impact of new permittivity measurements on sea surface emissivity modeling in microwaves, Radio Sci., 33, 649667, 1998.
  • Guissard, A., and P. Sobieski, An approximate model for the microwave brightness temperature of the sea, Int. J. Remote Sens., 8, 16071627, 1987.
  • Guissard, A., and P. Sobieski, A simplified radiative transfer equation for application in ocean microwave remote sensing, Radio Sci., 29, 881894, 1994.
  • Guissard, A., P. Sobieski, and C. Baufays, A unified approach to bistatic scattering for active and passive remote sensing of rough ocean surfaces, Trends Geophys. Res., 1, 4368, 1992.
  • Lemaire, D., P. Sobieski, and A. Guissard, Full-range sea surface spectrum in nonfully developed state for scattering calculations, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 37, 10381051, 1999.
  • Liebe, H., G. Hufford, and M. Cotton, Propagation modeling of moist air and suspended water/ice particles at frequencies below 1000 GHz, paper presented at Fifty-Second Specialists's Meeting of the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Panel, Adv. Group for Aerosp. Res. and Dev. (AGARD), Palma de Mallorca, Spain, 1993.
  • Lojou, J., Algorithmie et méthodes de validation des instruments en radiométrie hyperfréquence, thèse de doctorat, Paris-7 Univ., 1990.
  • Long, A. E., C-band and V-polarized radar sea-echo model from ERS-1 Haltenbanken campaign, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl., 9(3), 373379, 1995.
  • Monahan, E., and M. Lu, Acoustically relevant bubble assemblages and their dependance on meteorological parameters, IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., 15, 340349, 1990.
  • Monahan, E., and I. O'Muircheartaigh, Whitecaps and the passive remote sensing of the ocean surface, Int. J. Remote Sens., 7, 627642, 1986.
  • Peake, W., Interaction of electromagnetic waves with some natural surfaces, IRE Trans. Antennas Propag., 325329, 1959.
  • Quilfen, Y., and A. Bentamy, Off-line wind scatterometer ERS products: User manual, Report Ref. C2-MUT-W-01-IF, p. 85, Cent. ERS d'Arch. et de Trait. (CERSAT), Brest, France, 1996.
  • Ruf, C., S. Keihm, B. Subramanya, and M. Janssen, TOPEX/Poseidon microwave radiometer performance and in-flight calibration, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 24,91524,926, 1994.
  • Runefach, C., A new relation between radar cross-section and ocean surface wind speed using ERS-1 scatterometer and buoy measurements, Int. J. Remote Sens., 16, 36293647, 1995.
  • Smith, P., The emissivity of sea foam at 19 and 37 GHz, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 26, 541547, 1988.
  • Sobieski, P., A. Guissard, and C. Baufays, Synergic inversion technique for active and passive microwave remote sensing of the ocean, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 29, 391406, 1991.
  • Stogryn, A., The emissivity of sea foam at microwave frequencies, J. Geophys. Res., 77, 16581666, 1972.
  • Ulaby, F., R. Moore, and A. Fung, Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and Passive, vol. 3, From Theory to Applications, Addison-Wesley-Longman, Reading, Mass., 1981.
  • Walsh, E., F. Monaldo, and J. Goldhirsh, Rain and cloud effects on a satellite dual frequency radar altimeter operating at 13.5 GHz and 35 GHz, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 615622, 1984.
  • Wilheit, T., and A. Chang, An algorithm for retrieval of ocean surface and atmospheric parameters from the observations of the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer, Radio Sci., 15, 525544, 1980.
  • Williams, G., Microwave emissivity measurements of bubbles and foam, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electon., 221224, 1971.