Four estimators of the rate of dissipation of turbulent energy based on the velocity structure function, rms turbulent velocities, Brunt-Väisälä frequencies, and ground diffraction pattern fading rates are discussed and compared using Arecibo Initiative on the Dynamics of the Atmosphere MF radar data in both the imaging Doppler interferometry (IDI) and spaced antenna modes. A consistent set of empirical equations is developed which define and describe the relationships between the turbulent velocity, the Brunt-Väisälä frequency, the buoyancy length scale, the rate of dissipation of turbulent energy, the eddy diffusivity, and the time constant of the gravity wave generated, intermittent, decaying, coherent structures responsible for the scatterers detected by the IDI technique. It should be noted that the constants of proportionality are significantly different from the currently accepted values.
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