Dense media radiative transfer theory based on quasicrystalline approximation with applications to passive microwave remote sensing of snow


  • Leung Tsang,

  • Chi-Te Chen,

  • Alfred T. C. Chang,

  • Jianjun Guo,

  • Kung-Hau Ding


Dense media radiative transfer (DMRT) equations based on quasicrystalline approximation (QCA) for densely distributed moderate size particles are developed. We first compute the effective propagation constant and coherent transmission into a dense medium on the basis of the generalized Lorentz-Lorenz law and the generalized Ewald-Oseen extinction theorem. The absorption coefficient of the dense media is then calculated. The distorted Born approximation is next applied to a thin layer to determine the bistatic scattering coefficients and the scattering coefficient. The phase matrix in DMRT is then obtained as bistatic scattering coefficient per unit volume. The model is applied to multiple sizes and for sticky particles. Numerical results are illustrated for extinction and brightness temperatures in passive remote sensing using typical parameters in snow terrain. The QCA-based DMRT is also used to compare with satellite Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperatures for four channels at 19 and 37 GHz with vertical and horizontal polarizations and for two snow seasons. It shows reasonable agreement to snow depth of 1 m.