Two-dimension visualization of rain cell structures
Article first published online: 7 DEC 2012
Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.
Volume 35, Issue 3, pages 713–729, May-June 2000
How to Cite
2000), Two-dimension visualization of rain cell structures, Radio Sci., 35(3), 713–729, doi:10.1029/1999RS002274.(
- Issue published online: 7 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 7 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 19 JAN 2000
- Manuscript Received: 20 OCT 1999
A methodology is described for the simulation of two-dimensional rain rate fields based on a formulation derived from radar measurements of other investigators and modeled point rain rate distributions. This simulation enables a determination of typical radar clutter maps of rain backscatter and estimates of terrestrial path attenuation as a function of distance and azimuth. Rain rate fields are derived for three diverse climatological regions, and a step-by-step methodology is presented for determining them. Parameters are tabulated, enabling the determination of rain rate fields for any of the 15 International Telecommunication Union-Radio Communication rain rate zones. Examples giving typical path attenuation at 10 GHz versus distance profiles and 3-GHz radar backscatter profiles are calculated. A modified formulation that predicts cumulative slant path fade distributions for Earth-satellite scenarios using many of the elements of the simulation technique is reviewed. As a partial validation of the described rain rate field simulation technique, the cumulative fade distribution was calculated at 28.56 GHz and compared to the derived distribution from a previous 3-year measurement program involving the COMSTAR satellite. The calculated and measured levels were observed to give close agreement over the attenuation range from 3 to 25 dB, resulting in a root-mean-square deviation smaller than l dB and a standard error of approximately 10%.