Erosion, Sedimentation, and Geormorphology
Estimation of erosion, deposition, and net volumetric change caused by the 1996 Skeiðarársandur jökulhlaup, Iceland, from Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry
Article first published online: 9 JUL 2010
Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.
Water Resources Research
Volume 36, Issue 6, pages 1583–1594, February 2000
How to Cite
2000), Estimation of erosion, deposition, and net volumetric change caused by the 1996 Skeiðarársandur jökulhlaup, Iceland, from Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry, Water Resour. Res., 36(6), 1583–1594, doi:10.1029/1999WR900335., , , , , , and (
- Issue published online: 9 JUL 2010
- Article first published online: 9 JUL 2010
- Manuscript Accepted: 24 NOV 1999
- Manuscript Received: 17 MAY 1999
Using repeat-pass satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry, we develop a methodology to measure flood-induced erosion and deposition and apply it to a record 1996 glacier outburst flood (jökulhlaup) on Skeiðarársandur, Iceland. The procedures include (1) coregistration of backscatter intensity images to observe morphological differences; (2) mapping of interferometric phase correlation to identify preserved and modified surfaces; and (3) construction, correction, and differencing of pre-jökulhlaup and post-jökulhlaup topography. Procedures 1 and 2 are robust and should be widely applicable to other fluvial environments, while procedure 3 is complicated by uncertainties in phase measurement, baseline estimate, and atmospheric effects. After a correction procedure involving interpolation of digital elevation model elevation differences across low-correlation areas, we find ∼4 m of elevation change are required to calculate volumes of erosion or deposition. This condition was satisfied for the 40 km2 proglacial zone of Skeiðarársandur, where we estimate +38×106 m3 of net sediment deposition along the ice margin, −2 ×106 m3 of net erosion in channels downstream, and a total net balance of +13 × 106. These estimates are supported by field observations and survey data collected in 1997.