SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Bazzaz, F. A., The physiological ecology of plant succession, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 10, 351371, 1979.
  • Bishop, J. K. B., W. B. Rossow, and E. G. Dutton, Surface solar irradiance from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project 1983–1991, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 68836910, 1997.
  • Bonan, G. B., Land-atmosphere CO2 exchange simulated by a land surface process model coupled to an atmospheric general circulation model, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 28172831, 1995a.
  • Bonan, G. B., Sensitivity of a GCM simulation to inclusion of inland water surfaces, J. Clim., 8, 26912704, 1995b.
  • Bonan, G. B., A land surface model (LSM version 1.0) for ecological, hydrological, and atmospheric studies: Technical description and user's guide, NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-417+STR, Natl. Cent. for Atmos. Res., Boulder, Colo., 1996.
  • Bonan, G. B., Effects of land use on the climate of the United States, Climatic Change, 37, 449486, 1997.
  • Bonan, G. B., The land surface climatology of the NCAR land surface model coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model, J. Clim., 11, 13071326, 1998.
  • Bonan, G. B., Frost followed the plow: Impacts of deforestation on the climate of the United States, Ecol. Appl., 9, 13051315, 1999.
  • Bonan, G. B., and L. M. Stillwell-Soller, Soil water and the persistence of floods and droughts in the Mississippi River Basin, Water Resour. Res., 34, 26932701, 1998.
  • Bonan, G. B., K. J. Davis, D. Baldocchi, D. Fitzjarrald, and H. Neumann, Comparison of the NCAR LSM1 land surface model with BOREAS aspen and jack pine tower fluxes, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 29,06529,075, 1997.
  • Bormann, F. H., and G. E. Likens, Pattern and Process in a Forested Ecosystem, 253 pp., Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979.
  • Box, E. O., Plant functional types and climate at the global scale, J. Veg. Sci., 7, 309320, 1996.
  • Bugmann, H., Functional types of trees in temperate and boreal forests: Classification and testing, J. Veg. Sci., 7, 359370, 1996.
  • Chapin, F.S.III, M. S. Bret-Harte, S. E. Hobbie, and H. Zhong, Plant functional types as predictors of transient responses of arctic vegetation to global change, J. Veg. Sci., 7, 347358, 1996.
  • Coe, M. T., and G. B. Bonan, Feedbacks between climate and surface water in northern Africa during the middle Holocene, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 11,08711,101, 1997.
  • Collatz, G. J., J. T. Ball, C. Grivet, and J. A. Berry, Physiological and environmental regulation of stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and transpiration: A model that includes a laminar boundary layer, Agric. For. Meteorol., 54, 107136, 1991.
  • Collatz, G. J., M. Ribas-Carbo, and J. A. Berry, Coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model for leaves of C4 plants, Aust. J. Plant Physiol., 19, 519538, 1992.
  • Collatz, G. J., J. A. Berry, and J. S. Clark, Effects of climate and atmospheric CO2 partial pressure on the global distribution of C4 grasses: Present, past, and future, Oecologia, 114, 441454, 1998.
  • Cowan, I. R., Stomatal behavior and environment, Adv. Bot. Res., 4, 117228, 1977.
  • Cox, P. M., R. A. Betts, C. B. Bunton, R. L. H. Essery, P. R. Rowntree, and J. Smith, The impact of new land surface physics on the GCM simulation of climate and climate sensitivity, Clim. Dyn., 15, 183203, 1999.
  • Craig, S. G., K. J. Holmén, G. B. Bonan, and P. J. Rasch, Atmospheric CO2 simulated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model, 1, Mean fields and seasonal cycles, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 13,21313,235, 1998.
  • DeFries, R. S., J. R. G. Townshend, and M. C. Hansen, Continuous fields of vegetation characteristics at the global scale at 1-km resolution, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 16,91116,923, 1999.
  • DeFries, R. S., M. C. Hansen, and J. R. G. Townshend, Global continuous fields of vegetation characteristics: A linear mixture model applied to multi-year 8 km AVHRR data, Int. J. Remote Sens., 21, 13891414, 2000a.
  • DeFries, R. S., M. C. Hansen, J. R. G. Townshend, A. C. Janetos, and T. R. Loveland, A new global 1-km dataset of percentage tree cover derived from remote sensing, Global Change Biol., 6, 247254, 2000b.
  • Denning, A. S., I. Y. Fung, and D. Randall, Latitudinal gradient of atmospheric CO2 due to seasonal exchange with land biota, Nature, 376, 240242, 1995.
  • Denning, A. S., G. J. Collatz, C. Zhang, D. A. Randall, J. A. Berry, P. J. Sellers, G. D. Colello, and D. A. Dazlich, Simulations of terrestrial carbon metabolism and atmospheric CO2 in a general circulation model, part 1, Surface carbon fluxes, Tellus, Ser. B, 48, 521542, 1996a.
  • Denning, A. S., D. A. Randall, G. J. Collatz, and P. J. Sellers, Simulations of terrestrial carbon metabolism and atmospheric CO2 in a general circulation model. Part 2: Simulated CO2 concentrations, Tellus, 48B, 543567, 1996b.
  • Díaz, S., and M. Cabido, Plant functional types and ecosystem function in relation to global change, J. Veg. Sci., 8, 463474, 1997.
  • Dickinson, R. E., A. Henderson-Sellers, and P. J. Kennedy, Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) version 1e as coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model, NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-387+STR, Natl. Cent. for Atmos. Res., Boulder, Colo., 1993.
  • Dickinson, R. E., M. Shaikh, R. Bryant, and L. Graumlich, Interactive canopies for a climate model, J. Clim., 11, 28232836, 1998.
  • Dorman, J. L., and P. J. Sellers, A global climatology of albedo, roughness length, and stomatal resistance for atmospheric general circulation models as represented by a simple biosphere model (SiB), J. Appl. Meteorol., 28, 833855, 1989.
  • Eidenshink, J. C., and J. L. Faundeen, The 1km AVHRR global land data set: First stages in implementation, Int. J. Remote Sens., 15, 34433462, 1994.
  • Farquhar, G. D., S. von Caemmerer, and J. A. Berry, A biochemical model of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in leaves of C3 species, Planta, 149, 7890, 1980.
  • Field, C., and H. A. Mooney, The photosynthesis-nitrogen relationship in wild plants, in On the Economy of Plant Form and Function, edited by T. J. Givnish, pp. 2555, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 1986.
  • Foley, J. A., C. I. Prentice, N. Ramankutty, S. Levis, D. Pollard, S. Sitch, and A. Haxeltine, An integrated biosphere model of land surface processes, terrestrial carbon balance, and vegetation dynamics, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 10, 603628, 1996.
  • Gadgil, M., and O. T. Solbrig, The concept of r- and K-selection: Evidence from wild flowers and some theoretical considerations, Am. Nat., 106, 1431, 1972.
  • Gleason, H. A., The individualistic concept of the plant association, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 53, 726, 1926.
  • Gleason, H. A., The individualistic concept of the plant association, Am. Midland Nat., 21, 92110, 1939.
  • Grime, J. P., Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes, 222 pp., John Wiley, New York, 1979.
  • Grime, J. P., Vegetation functional classification systems as approaches to predicting and quantifying global vegetation change, in Vegetation Dynamics and Global Change, edited by A. M. Solomon, and H. H. Shugart, pp. 293305, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1993.
  • Hahmann, A., and R. E. Dickinson, A fine-mesh land approach for general circulation models and its impact on regional climate, J. Clim., 14, 16341646, 2001.
  • Haxeltine, A., and I. C. Prentice, BIOME3: An equilibrium terrestrial biosphere model based on ecophysiological constraints, resource availability, and competition among plant functional types, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 10, 693709, 1996.
  • Huston, M., and T. Smith, Plant succession: Life history and competition, Am. Nat., 130, 168198, 1987.
  • Idso, S. B., A set of equations for full spectrum and 8- to 14-μm and 10.5- to 12.5-μm thermal radiation from cloudless skies, Water Resour. Res., 17, 295304, 1981.
  • Jones, P. D., M. New, D. E. Parker, S. Martin, and I. G. Rigor, Surface air temperature and its changes over the past 150 years, Rev. Geophys., 37, 173199, 1999.
  • Kalnay, E., at al., The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 437471, 1996.
  • Keeley, J. E., and S. C. Keeley, Chaparral, in North American Terrestrial Vegetation, edited by M. G. Barbour, and W. D. Billings, pp. 165207, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 1988.
  • Knyazikhin, Y., J. V. Martonchik, R. B. Myneni, D. J. Diner, and S. W. Running, Synergistic algorithm for estimating vegetation canopy leaf area index and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation from MODIS and MISR data, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 32,25732,276, 1998a.
  • Knyazikhin, Y., J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, R. B. Myneni, M. M. Verstraete, B. Pinty, and N. Gobron, Estimation of vegetation canopy leaf area index and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation from atmosphere-corected MISR data, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 32,23932,256, 1998b.
  • Körner, C., Scaling from species to vegetation: The usefulness of functional groups, in Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function, edited by E.-D. Schulzeand, and H. A. Mooney, pp. 117140, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993.
  • Kucharik, C. J., J. A. Foley, C. Delire, V. A. Fisher, M. T. Coe, J. D. Lenters, C. Young-Molling, N. Ramankutty, J. M. Norman, and S. T. Gower, Testing the performance of a dynamic global ecosystem model: Water balance, carbon balance, and vegetation structure, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 14, 795825, 2000.
  • Kutzbach, J., G. Bonan, J. Foley, and S. P. Harrison, Vegetation and soil feedbacks on the response of the African monsoon to orbital forcing in the early to middle Holocene, Nature, 384, 623626, 1996.
  • Legates, D. R., and C. J. Willmott, Mean seasonal and spatial variability in global surface air temperature, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 41, 1121, 1990a.
  • Legates, D. R., and C. J. Willmott, Mean seasonal and spatial variability in gauge-corrected, global precipitation, Int. J. Climatol., 10, 111127, 1990b.
  • Loveland, T. R., B. C. Reed, J. F. Brown, D. O. Ohlen, Z. Zhu, L. Yang, and J. W. Merchant, Development of a global land cover characteristics database and IGBP DISCover from 1 km AVHRR data, Int. J. Remote Sens., 21, 13031330, 2000.
  • Lynch, A. H., G. B. Bonan, F. S. Chapin III, and W. Wu, The impact of tundra ecosystems on the surface energy budget and climate of Alaska, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 66476660, 1999.
  • MacArthur, R. H., and E. O. Wilson, The Theory of Island Biogeography, 203 pp., Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, N. J., 1967.
  • Myneni, R. B., R. R. Nemani, and S. W. Running, Estimation of global leaf area index and absorbed par using radiative transfer models, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 35, 13801393, 1997.
  • Neilson, R. P., A model for predicting continental-scale vegetation distribution and water balance, Ecol. Appl., 5, 362385, 1995.
  • Nemani, R., and S. W. Running, Implementation of a hierarchical global vegetation classification in ecosystem function models, J. Veg. Sci., 7, 337346, 1996.
  • Noble, I. R., and R. O. Slayter, The use of vital attributes to predict successional changes in plant communities subject to recurrent disturbances, Vegetatio, 43, 521, 1980.
  • Oleson, K. W., and G. B. Bonan, The effects of remotely sensed plant functional type and leaf area index on simulations of boreal forest surface fluxes by the NCAR land surface model, J. Hydrometeorol., 1, 431446, 2000.
  • Olson, J. S., J. A. Watts, and L. J. Allison, Carbon in live vegetation of major world ecosystems, ORNL-5862, Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., Oak Ridge, Tenn., 1983.
  • Prentice, I. C., W. Cramer, S. P. Harrison, R. Leemans, R. A. Monserud, and A. M. Solomon, A global biome model based on plant physiology and dominance, soil properties, and climate, J. Biogeogr., 19, 117134, 1992.
  • Randall, D. A., et al., A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMs, part III, The greening of the Colorado State University general circulation model, J. Clim., 9, 738763, 1996.
  • Reich, P. B., M. B. Walters, and D. S. Ellsworth, Leaf life-span in relation to leaf, plant, and stand characteristics among diverse ecosystems, Ecol. Monogr., 62, 365392, 1992.
  • Reich, P. B., B. D. Kloeppel, D. S. Ellsworth, and M. B. Walters, Different photosynthesis-nitrogen relations in deciduous hardwood and evergreen coniferous tree species, Oecologia, 104, 2430, 1995.
  • Reich, P. B., M. B. Walters, and D. S. Ellsworth, From tropics to tundra: Global convergence in plant functioning, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 94, 13,73013,734, 1997.
  • Reich, P. B., D. S. Ellsworth, and M. B. Walters, Leaf structure (specific leaf area) modulates photosynthesis-nitrogen relations: Evidence from within and across species and functional groups, Funct. Ecol., 12, 948958, 1998a.
  • Reich, P. B., M. B. Walters, D. S. Ellsworth, J. M. Vose, J. C. Volin, C. Gresham, and W. D. Bowman, Relationships of leaf dark respiration to leaf nitrogen, specific leaf area and leaf life-span: A test across biomes and functional groups, Oecologia, 114, 471482, 1998b.
  • Ropelewski, C. F., and M. S. Halpert, Quantifying southern oscillation-precipitation relationships, J. Clim., 9, 10431059, 1996.
  • Running, S. W., and J. C. Coughlan, A general model of forest ecosystem processes for regional applications, I, Hydrological balance, canopy gas exchange and primary production processes, Ecol. Modell., 42, 125154, 1988.
  • Running, S. W., and S. T. Gower, FOREST-BGC, a general model of forest ecosystem processes for regional applications, II, Dynamic carbon allocation and nitrogen budgets, Tree Physiol., 9, 147160, 1991.
  • Running, S. W., and E. R. Hunt Jr., Generalization of a forest ecosystem process model for other biomes, BIOME-BGC, and an application for global-scale models, in Scaling Physiological Processes: Leaf to Globe, edited by J. R. Ehleringer, and C. B. Field, pp. 141158, Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993.
  • Running, S. W., T. R. Loveland, L. L. Pierce, R. R. Nemani, and E. R. Hunt Jr., A remote sensing based vegetation classification logic for global land cover analysis, Remote Sens. Environ., 51, 3948, 1995.
  • Ryan, M. G., Effects of climate change on plant respiration, Ecol. Appl., 1, 157167, 1991.
  • Ryan, M. G., Foliar maintenance respiration of subalpine and boreal trees and shrubs in relation to nitrogen content, Plant Cell Environ., 18, 765772, 1995.
  • Schimel, D. S., and B. H. Braswell, Continental scale variability in ecosystem processes: Models, data, and the role of disturbance, Ecol. Monogr., 67, 251271, 1997.
  • Scholes, R. J., G. Pickett, W. N. Ellery, and A. C. Blackmore, Plant functional types in African savannas and grasslands, in Plant Functional Types: Their Relevance to Ecosystem Properties and Global Change, edited by T. M. Smith, H. H. Shugart, and F. I. Woodward, pp. 255268, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 1997.
  • Schulze, E.-D., F. M. Kelliher, C. Körner, J. Lloyd, and R. Leuning, Relationships among maximum stomatal conductance, ecosystem surface conductance, carbon assimilation rate, and plant nitrogen nutrition: A global ecology scaling exercise, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 25, 629660, 1994.
  • Sellers, P. J., S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, C. O. Justice, D. A. Dazlich, G. J. Collatz, and D. A. Randall, A global 1 by 1 degree NDVI data set for climate studies, part 2, The generation of global fields of terrestrial biophysical parameters from the NDVI, Int. J. Remote Sens., 15, 35193545, 1994.
  • Sellers, P. J., D. A. Randall, G. J. Collatz, J. A. Berry, C. B. Field, D. A. Dazlich, C. Zhang, G. D. Collelo, and L. Bounoua, A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for GCMs, part I, Model formulation, J. Clim., 9, 676705, 1996a.
  • Sellers, P. J., S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, C. O. Justice, D. A. Dazlich, G. J. Collatz, and D. A. Randall, A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMs, part II, The generation of global fields of terrestrial biophysical parameters from satellite data, J. Clim., 9, 706737, 1996b.
  • Sellers, P. J., et al., Modeling the exchanges of energy, water, and carbon between continents and the atmosphere, Science, 275, 502509, 1997.
  • Shugart, H. H., A Theory of Forest Dynamics, 278 pp., Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984.
  • Shugart, H. H., Dynamic ecosystem consequences of tree birth and death patterns, BioScience, 37, 596602, 1987.
  • Skarpe, C., Plant functional types and climate in a southern African savanna, J. Veg. Sci., 7, 397404, 1996.
  • Smith, T. M., H. H. Shugart, F. I. Woodward, and P. J. Burton, Plant functional types, in Vegetation Dynamics and Global Change, edited by A. M. Solomon, and H. H. Shugart, pp. 272292, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1993.
  • Smith, T. M., H. H. Shugart, and F. I. Woodward (Eds.), Plant Functional Types: Their Relevance to Ecosystem Properties and Global Change, 369 pp., Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 1997.
  • Steinwand, D. R., Mapping raster imagery to the Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection, Int. J. Remote Sens., 15, 34633472, 1994.
  • Trenberth, K. E., The definition of El Nino, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 27712777, 1997.
  • Trenberth, K. E., and T. J. Hoar, The 1990-1995 El Nino-Southern Oscillation event: Longest on record, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 5760, 1996.
  • VEMAP members, Vegetation/ecosystem modeling and analysis project: Comparing biogeography and biogeochemistry models in a continental-scale study of terrestrial ecosystem responses to climate change and CO2 doubling, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 9, 407437, 1995.
  • Viovy, N., O. Arino, and A. S. Belward, The Best Indice Slope Extraction (BISE): A method for reducing noise in NDVI time-series, Int. J. Remote Sens., 13, 15851590, 1992.
  • Watt, A. S., Pattern and process in the plant community, J. Ecol., 35, 122, 1947.
  • Whittaker, R. H., Vegetation of the Great Smoky Mountains, Ecol. Monogr., 26, 180, 1956.
  • Woodward, F. I., and W. Cramer, Plant functional types and climatic changes: Introduction, J. Veg. Sci., 7, 306308, 1996.
  • Xie, P., and P. A. Arkin, Global precipitation: A 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satelllite estimates, and numerical model outputs, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 25392558, 1997.
  • Zeng, X., R. E. Dickinson, A. Walker, M. Shaikh, R. S. DeFries, and J. Qi, Derivation and evaluation of global 1-km fractional vegetation cover data for land modeling, J. Appl. Meteorol., 39, 826839, 2000.