SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aagaard, K., L. K. Coachman, and E. C. Carmack, On the halocline of the Arctic Ocean, Deep Sea Res., Part A, 28, 529545, 1981.
  • Anderson, L. G., E. P. Jones, and B. Rudels, Ventilation of the Arctic Ocean estimated by a plume entrainment model constrained by CFCs, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 13,42313,429, 1999.
  • Aukrust, T., and J. M. Oberhuber, Modelling of the Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian Seas with a coupled sea ice-mixed layer-isopycnal ocean model, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 47714789, 1995.
  • Bauch, D., P. Schlosser, and R. G. Fairbanks, Freshwater balance and the sources of deep and bottom waters in the Arctic Ocean inferred from the distribution of H218O, Prog. Oceanogr., 35, 5380, 1995.
  • Cabos Narvaez, W., M. J. OrtizBevia, and J. M. Oberhuber, The variability of the tropical Atlantic, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 74757489, 1998.
  • Carmack, E. C., K. Aagaard, J. H. Swift, R. W. MacDonald, F. A. McLaughlin, E. P. Jones, R. G. Perkin, J. N. Smith, K. E. Ellis, and L. R. Kilius, Changes in temperature and tracer distributions within the Arctic Ocean: Results from the 1994 Arctic Ocean section, Deep Sea Res., Part II, 44, 14871502, 1997.
  • Dickson, R. R., T. J. Osborn, J. W. Hurrell, J. Meincke, J. Blindheim, B. Ådlandsvik, T. Vinje, G. Alekseev, W. Maslowski, and H. Cattle, The Arctic Ocean response to the North Atlantic Oscillation, J. Clim., 13, 2671 ff, 2000.
  • European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), ECMWF Forecast Model, Physical Parameterization, Res. Manual, vol. 3, 2nd ed., Reading, U. K., 1988.
  • Frank, M., Spurenstoffuntersuchungen zur Zirkulation im Eurasischen Becken des Nordpolarmeeres, Ph.D. diss., Ruprecht-Karls-Univ., Heidelberg, Germany, 1996.
  • Frank, M., W. M. Smethie Jr., and R. Bayer, Investigation of subsurface water flow along the continental margin of the Eurasian Basin using the transient tracers Tritium, 3He, and CFCs, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 30,77330,792, 1998.
  • Gerdes, R., Modelling the variability of the exchanges between the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, in The Fresh Water Budget of the Arctic Ocean, edited by E. L. Lewis, pp. 533547, Kluwer Acad., Norwell, Mass., 2000.
  • Gerdes, R., and C. Köberle, Numerical simulation of salinity anomaly propagation in the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean, Polar Res., 18, 159166, 1999.
  • Gerdes, R., and U. Schauer, Large-scale circulation and water mass distribution in the Arctic Ocean from model results and observations, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 84678483, 1997.
  • Gorshkov, S. G., Atlas of Oceans: Arctic Ocean, Mil. Def., Moscow, 1980.
  • Grotefendt, K., K. Logemann, D. Quadfasel, and S. Ronski, Is the Arctic Ocean warming? J. Geophys. Res., 103, 27,67927,687, 1998.
  • Guay, C. K., and K. K. Falkner, Barium as a tracer of Arctic halocline and river waters, Deep Sea Res., Part II, 44, 15431569, 1997.
  • Häkkinen, S., and D. J. Cavalieri, A study of oceanic surface heat fluxes in the Greenland, Norwegian, and Barents Seas, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 61456157, 1989.
  • Häkkinen, S., and G. L. Mellor, Modeling the seasonal variability of a coupled Arctic ice-ocean system, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 20,28520,304, 1992.
  • Harms, I. H., and M. J. Karcher, Modelling the seasonal variability of circulation and hydrography in the Kara Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 13,43113,448, 1999.
  • Hibler, W. D.III, A dynamic-thermodaynamic sea ice model, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 9, 815846, 1979.
  • Holland, D. M., L. A. Mysak, and J. M. Oberhuber, Simulation of the mixed-layer circulation in the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 11111128, 1996a.
  • Holland, D. M., L. A. Mysak, and J. M. Oberhuber, An investigation of the general circulation of the Arctic Ocean using an isopycnal model, Tellus, Ser. A, 48, 138157, 1996b.
  • Jones, E. P., L. G. Anderson, and J. H. Swift, Distribution of Atlantic and Pacific waters in the upper Arctic Ocean: Implications for circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 765768, 1998.
  • Karcher, M. J., I. H. Harms, and J. M. Smith, Long-range transport of 129 I and 137 Cs in the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean, paper presented at the International Symposium on Marine Pollution, Int. At. Energy Agency, Vienna, 1999.
  • Kauker, F., and J. M. Oberhuber, An isopycnical ocean circulation model of the North Sea for dynamical downscaling, GKSS-Rep. 97/E/47, GKSS Res. Cent., Geesthacht, Germany, 1997.
  • Levitus, S., Climatological atlas of the world ocean, NOAA Prof. Pap. 13, 173 pp., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., Washington, D. C., 1982.
  • Maslowski, W., D. C. Marble, W. Walczowski, and A. J. Semtner, On large scale shifts in the Arctic Ocean and sea ice conditions during 1979–1998, Ann. Glaciol., 23, 545550, 2001.
  • Mauritzen, C., Production of dense overflow waters feeding the North Atlantic across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge part 1, Evidence for a revised circulation scheme, Deep Sea Res., Part I, 43, 769806, 1996.
  • McLaughlin, F. A., E. C. Carmack, R .W. Macdonald, and J. K. B. Bishop, Physical and geochemical properties across the Atlantic/Pacific water mass front in the southern Canadian basin, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 11831197, 1996.
  • Oberhuber, J. M., Simulation of the Atlantic Circulation with a coupled sea ice-mixed layer-isopycnal general circulation model, part I, Model description, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 808829, 1993a.
  • Oberhuber, J. M., Simulation of the Atlantic circulation with a coupled sea ice-mixed layer-isopycnal general circulation model, part II, Model experiment, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 830845, 1993b.
  • Oberhuber, J. M., Description of the parallel isopycnal primitive equation OGCM PIPE, Tech. Rep. 19, Dtsch. Klimarechenzentr., Hamburg, 1999.
  • Östlund, H. G., and G. Hut, Arctic Ocean water mass balance from isotope data, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 63736381, 1984.
  • Pavlov, V. K., and S. L. Pfirman, Hydrographic structure and variability of the Kara Sea: Implications for pollutant distribution, Deep Sea Res., Part II, 42, 1995.
  • Polyakov, I. V., A. Y. Proshutinsky, and M. A. Johnson, Seasonal cycles in two regimes of Arctic climate, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 25,76125,788, 1999.
  • Proshutinsky, A. Y., and M. A. Johnson, Two circulation regimes of the wind-driven Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 12,49312,514, 1997.
  • Quadfasel, D., B. Rudels, and S. Selchow, The Central Bank vortex in the Barents Sea: Watermass transformation and circulation, ICES Mar. Sci. Symp., 195, 4051, 1992.
  • Roach, A. T., K. Aagaard, C. H. Pease, S. A. Salo, T. Weingartner, V. Pavlov, and M. Kulakov, Direct measurements of transport and water properties through the Bering Strait, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 18,44318,457, 1995.
  • Rudels, B., E. P. Jones, L. G. Anderson, and G. Kattner, On the intermediate depth waters of the Arctic Ocean, in The Polar Oceans and Their Role in Shaping the Global Environment, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 85, edited by O. M. Johannessen, R. D. Muench, and J. E. Overland, pp. 3346, AGU, Washington, D. C., 1994.
  • Rudels, B., L. G. Anderson, and E. P. Jones, Formation and evolution of the surface mixed layer and halocline of the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 88078821, 1996.
  • Schauer, U., R. D. Muench, B. Rudels, and L. Timokhov, Impact of eastern Arctic shelf waters on the Nansen Basin, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 33713382, 1996.
  • Schauer, U., B. Rudels, E. P. Jones, L. G. Anderson, R. D. Muench, G. Björk, J. H. Swift, V. Ivanov, and A.-M. Larsson, Confluence and redistribution of Atlantic Water in the Nansen, Amundsen and Makarov basins, Ann. Geophys., 20, 257273, 2002.
  • Schlosser, P., D. Bauch, R. Fairbanks, and G. Bönisch, Arctic river runoff: mean residence time on the shelves and in the halocline, Deep Sea Res., Part I, 41, 10531068, 1994.
  • Schlosser, P., J. H. Swift, D. Lewis, and S. L. Pfirman, The role of the large-scale Arctic Ocean circulation in the transport of contaminants, Deep Sea Res., Part II, 42, 13411367, 1995.
  • Simonsen, K., and P. M. Haugan, Heat budgets of the Arctic Mediterranean and sea surface heat flux parameterizations for the Nordic Seas, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 65536576, 1996.
  • Smethie, W. M.Jr., P. Schlosser, G. Boenisch, and T. s. Hopkins, Renewal and circulation of intermediate waters in the Canadian Basin, observed on the SCICEX 96 cruise, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 11051121, 2000.
  • Smith, J. N., K. M. Ellis, and T. Boyd, Circulation features in the western Arctic Ocean revealed by nuclear fuel tracers from scientific ice expeditions 1995 and 1996, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 29,66329,677, 1999.
  • Swift, J. H., E. P. Jones, K. Aagaard, E. C. Carmack, M. Hingston, R. W. Macdonald, F. A. McLaughlin, and R. G. Perkin, Waters of the Makarov and Canada basins, Deep Sea Res., Part II, 44, 15031529, 1997.
  • Trenberth, K. E., J. G. Olson, and W. G. Large, A global ocean wind stress climatology based on ECMWF analyses, Tech. Note NCAR/TN-338-STR, Natl. Cent. for Atmos. Res., Boulder, Colo., 1989.
  • Treshnikov, A. F., Atlas of the Arktic (in Russian), 204 pp., Cent. Dir. of Geod. and Cartogr. of the Counc. of Ministers of the USSR, Moscow, 1985.
  • Vinje, T., N. Nordlund, and A. Kvambekk, Monitoring ice thickness in Fram Strait, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 10,43710,449, 1998.
  • Wright, P., An atlas based on the COADS data set: Fields of mean wind, cloudiness and humidity at the surface of the global ocean, Tech. Rep. 14, Max-Planck-Inst. für Meteorol., Hamburg, Germany, 1988.