SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Arya, S. P., Introduction to Micrometeorology, Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1988.
  • Benilov, A. Y., O. A. Koutznetsov, G. N. Panin, On the analysis of wind wave-induced disturbances in the atmospheric surface layer, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 6, 269285, 1974.
  • Bergström, H., U. Högström, Calibration of a three-axial fiber-film system for meteorological turbulence measurements, Dantec Inf., 5, 1620, 1987.
  • Bergström, H., A.-S. Smedman, Stably stratified flow in a marine surface layer, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 72, 239265, 1994.
  • Davidson, K. L., Observational results on the influence of stability and wind-wave coupling on momentum transfer and turbulent fluctuations over ocean waves, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 6, 305331, 1974.
  • Deardorff, J. W., Convective velocity and temperature scales for the unstable planetary boundary layer and for Rayleigh convection, J. Atmos. Sci., 27, 12111213, 1970.
  • Donelan, M. A., Air-sea interaction, inThe Sea: Ocean Engineering Science, edited byB. LeMehaute, andD. Hanes, vol.9, pp.239292,John Wiley,New York,1990.
  • Donelan, M. A., J. Hamilton, W. H. Hui, Directional spectra of wind-generated waves, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, 315, 509562, 1985.
  • Donelan, M. A., W. M. Drennan, K. B. Katsaros, The air-sea momentum flux in conditions of mixed wind sea and swell, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 20872099, 1997.
  • Drennan, M. W., K. K. Kahma, M. A. Donelan, On momentum and velocity spectra over waves, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 92, 489515, 1999.
  • Edson, J. B., C. W. Fairall, Similarity relationships in the marine atmospheric surface layer for terms in the TKE and scalar variance budgets, J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 23112328, 1998.
  • Grachev, A. A., andC. W. Fairall, Upward momentum transfer in the marine boundary layer,J. Phys. Oceanogr., in press,31,16981711,2001.
  • Grelle, A., A. Lindroth, Flow distortion by a Solent sonic anemometer: Wind tunnel calibration and its assessment for flux measurements over forest and field, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 11, 15291542, 1994.
  • Högström, U., Non-dimensional wind and temperature profiles in the atmospheric surface layer: A re-evaluation, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 42, 5578, 1988.
  • Högström, U., Analysis of turbulence structure in the surface layer with a modified similarity formulation for near neutral conditions, J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 19491972, 1990.
  • Högström, U., Review of some basic characteristics of the atmospheric surface layer, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 78, 215246, 1996.
  • Högström, U., A. Smedman, H. Bergström, A case study of two-dimensional stratified turbulence, J. Atm. Sci., 56, 959976, 1999.
  • Holland, J. Z., W. Chen, J. A. Almazon, F. C. Elder, Atmospheric boundary layer, IFYGL—The International Field Year for the Great LakesE. J. Aubert, T. L. Richards, 109167, Natl. Oceanic and Atmos. Admin., Ann Arbor, Mich., 1981.
  • Holtslag, A. A., H. A. R. De Bruin, Applied modeling of the nighttime surface energy balance over land, J. Appl. Meteorol., 27, 689704, 1988.
  • Hunt, J. C. R., D. D. Strech, R. E. Britter, Length scales in stably stratified turbulent flows and their use in turbulence models, Stably Stratified Flow and Dense Gas DispersionJ. S. Puttock, IMA Conference Series, Clarendon, Oxford, England, 1988.
  • Janssen, P. A. E. M., Wave-induced stress and the drag of air-flow over sea waves, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 19, 745754, 1989.
  • Johansson, C., A.-S. Smedman, U. Högström, J. G. Brasseur, S. Khanna, Critical test of the validity of Monin-Obukhov similarity during convective conditions, J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 15491566, 2001.
  • Kaimal, J. C., Turbulence spectra, length scales and structure parameters in the stable surface layer, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 4, 280309, 1973.
  • Kaimal, J. C., J. C. Wyngaard, Y. Izumi, O. R. Coté, Spectral characteristics of surface-layer turbulence, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 98, 563589, 1972.
  • Kaimal, J. C., J. C. Wyngaard, D. A. Haugen, O. R. Coté, Y. Izumi, S. J. Caughey, C. J. Readings, Turbulence structure in the convective boundary layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 21522169, 1976.
  • King, J. C., Some measurements of turbulence over an Antarctic ice shelf, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 116, 379400, 1990.
  • Large, W. G., S. Pond, Open ocean momentum flux measurements in moderate to strong winds, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11, 324336, 1981.
  • Mahrt, L., Stratified atmospheric boundary layers, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 90, 375396, 1999.
  • Makin, V. K., C. Mastenbroek, Impact of waves on air-sea exchange of sensible heat and momentum, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 79, 279300, 1996.
  • Makova, V. I., Features of the dynamics of turbulence in the marine atmospheric surface layer at various stages in the development of waves, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., 11, 177182, 1975.
  • McBean, G. A., J. A. Elliott, The vertical transports of kinetic energy by turbulence and pressure in the boundary layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 753766, 1975.
  • Monin, A. S., A. M. Yaglom, Statistical Fluid Mechanics, , 1, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1971.
  • Ohya, Y., D. E. Neff, R. N. Meroney, Turbulence structure in a stratified boundary layer under stable conditions, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 83, 139161, 1997.
  • Oost, W. A., C. M. J. Jacobs, C. vanOort, Stability effects on heat and moisture fluxes at sea, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 95, 271302, 2000.
  • Panofsky, H. A., H. Tennekes, D. H. Lenschow, J. C. Wyngaard, The characteristics of turbulent velocity components in the surface layer under convective conditions, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 11, 355361, 1977.
  • Paulson, C. A., The mathematical representation of wind speed and temperature profiles in the unstable atmospheric surface layer, J. Appl. Meteorol., 9, 857861, 1970.
  • Pierson, W. J. J., L. Moskowitz, A proposed spectral form for fully developed wind seas based on similarity theory of S. A. Kitaigorodskii, J. Geophys. Res., 69, 51815190, 1964.
  • Rogers, D. P., et al., Highlights of the Coastal Waves Experiment 1996, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 79, 13071326, 1998.
  • Rutgersson, A., A.-S. Smedman, A. Omstedt, Measured and simulated latent and sensible heat fluxes at two marine sites in the Baltic Sea, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 99, 5384, 2001.
  • Smedman, A., U. Högström, H. Bergström, A. Rutgersson, K. Kahma, H. Pettersson, A case-study of air-sea interaction during swell conditions, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 25,83325,851, 1999.
  • Smedman, A.-S., Observations of a multi-level turbulence structure in a very stable atmospheric boundary layer, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 44, 231253, 1988.
  • Smedman, A.-S., Some turbulence characteristics in stable atmospheric boundary layer flow, J. Atmos. Sci., 48, 856868, 1991.
  • Smedman, A.-S., M. Tjerström, U. Högström, The near-neutral marine atmospheric boundary layer with no surface shearing stress: A case study, J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 33993411, 1994.
  • Smedman, A.-S., H. Bergström, U. Högström, Spectra, variances and length scales in a marine stable boundary layer dominated by a low level jet, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 76, 211232, 1995.
  • Smedman, A.-S., U. Högström, H. Bergström, The turbulence regime of a very stable marine airflow with quasi-frictional decoupling, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 21,04921,059, 1997.
  • Smeets, C. J. P. P., P. G. Duynkerke, H. F. Vugts, Turbulence characteristics of the stable boundary layer over a mid-latitude glacier, part 1, A combination of katabatic and the large scale forcing conditions, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 87, 117145, 1998.
  • Smith, S. D., R. J. Anderson, Spectra of humidity, temperature, and wind over the sea at Sable Island, Nova Scotia, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 20292040, 1984.
  • Tennekes, H., Free convection in the turbulent Ekman layer of the atmosphere, Phys. Fluids, 11, 669671, 1970.
  • Townsend, A. A., Equilibrium layers and wall turbulence, J. Fluid Mech., 11, 97120, 1961.
  • Van der Avoird, E., P. G. Duynkerke, Turbulence in a katabatic flow, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 92, 3966, 1999.
  • Volkov, Y. A., Turbulent flux of momentum and heat in the atmospheric surface layer over a disturbed sea-surface, Engl. Transl., Izv. Russ. Acad. Sci. Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 6, 770774, 1970.
  • Wyngaard, J. C., O. R. Coté, The budgets of turbulent kinetic energy and temperature variance in the atmospheric surface layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 190201, 1971.