• Ackermann, J., The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of tropospheric aerosol: A numerical study, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15, 10431050, 1998.
  • Althausen, D., D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, Scanning, 6-wavelength, 11-channel aerosol lidar, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 17, 14691482, 2000.
  • Anderson, T. L., J. A. Ogren, Determining aerosol radiative properties using the TSI 3563 integrating nephelometer, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 29, 5769, 1998.
  • Anderson, T. L., et al., Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity, three-wavelength, total scatter/backscatter nephelometer, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 13, 967986, 1996.
  • Ansmann, A., M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, Measurements of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar, Opt. Lett., 15, 746748, 1990.
  • Ansmann, A., M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio, Appl. Phys. B, 55, 1828, 1992a.
  • Ansmann, A.U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar, Appl. Opt., 31, 71137131, 1992b.
  • Ansmann, A., D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: A first case study, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 963966, 2000.
  • Bond, T. C., T. L. Anderson, D. Campbell, Calibration and intercomparison of filter-based measurements of visible light absorption by aerosols, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 30, 582600, 1999.
  • Doherty, S. J., T. L. Anderson, and R. J. Charlson, Measurement of the lidar ratio for atmospheric aerosols with a 180° backscatter nephelometer, Appl. Opt., 38, 18231832, 1999.
  • Ferrare, R. A., S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, and R. Leifer, Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering, 1 Methods and comparisons, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 19,66319,672, 1998.
  • Ferrare, R., et al., Comparisons of LASE, aircraft, and satellite measurements of aerosol optical properties and water vapor during TARFOX, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 99359947, 2000.
  • Foot, J. S., and C. G. Kilsby, Absorption of light by aerosol particles: An intercomparison of techniques and spectral observations, Atmos. Environ., 23, 489495, 1989.
  • Fuller, K. A., Scattering and absorption cross sections of compounded spheres, III, Spheres containing arbitrarily located spherical inhomogeneities, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 12, 893904, 1995.
  • Hartley, W. S., P. V. Hobbs, J. L. Ross, P. B. Russell, and J. M. Livingston, Properties of aerosols aloft relevant to direct radiative forcing off the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 98599885, 2000.
  • Huebert, B. A., S. G. Howell, D. Covert, A. Clarke, and J. R. Anderson, Passing Efficiency of a Low Turbulence Inlet (PELTI): Final Report to NSF, 13 Sept. 2000.
  • Kato, S., et al., A comparison of the aerosol thickness derived from ground-based and airborne measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 14,70114,717, 2000.
  • Klett, J. D., Lidar inversion with variable backscatter/extinction ratios, Appl. Opt., 24, 16381643, 1985.
  • Schmid, B., et al., Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements, Tellus, Ser. B,, 52, 568593, 2000.
  • Sheridan, P. J., A. Jefferson, and J. A. Ogren, Spatial variability of submicrometer aerosol radiative properties over the Indian Ocean during INDOEX, J. Geophys. Res., 107, D19, 10.1029/2000JD000166, 2002.
  • Wandinger, U., and A. Ansmann, Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar, Appl. Opt., 41, 511514, 2002.