A diagnostic analysis of the Kennedy Space Center LDAR network: 2. Cross-sensor studies


  • D. J. Boccippio,

  • S. Heckman,

  • S. J. Goodman


Range dependencies in total (intracloud and cloud to ground) lightning observed by the Kennedy Space Center Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) network are established through cross comparison with other lightning sensors. Using total lightning observed from space by the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), LDAR flash detection efficiency is shown to remain above 90% out to 90–100 km range, and to be below 25% at 200 km range. LDAR VHF source location error distributions are also determined as a function of range and are found to be asymmetric with standard deviation increasing roughly as r2. Range normalization schemes for total VHF source density are tested and shown to yield significant improvements in correlation with National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) ground flash density at hourly, daily, monthly, and climatological timescales (up to 50% over uncorrected source densities using an exponential-in-range correction factor with 40–50 km e-folding scale).