Ozone in the Pacific tropical troposphere from ozonesonde observations

Authors

  • Samuel J. Oltmans,

  • Bryan J. Johnson,

  • Joyce M. Harris,

  • Holger Vömel,

  • Anne M. Thompson,

  • Kanatathu Koshy,

  • Patrick Simon,

  • Richard J. Bendura,

  • Jennifer A. Logan,

  • Fumio Hasebe,

  • Masato Shiotani,

  • Volker W. J. H. Kirchhoff,

  • Matakite Maata,

  • Gopal Sami,

  • Ansari Samad,

  • Jioji Tabuadravu,

  • Humberto Enriquez,

  • Mario Agama,

  • Jaime Cornejo,

  • Francisco Paredes


Abstract

Ozone vertical profile measurements obtained from ozonesondes flown at Fiji, Samoa, Tahiti, and the Galapagos are used to characterize ozone in the troposphere over the tropical Pacific. There is a significant seasonal variation at each of these sites. At sites in both the eastern and western Pacific, ozone mixing ratios are greatest at almost all levels in the troposphere during the September-November season and smallest during March-May. The vertical profile has a relative maximum at all of the sites in the midtroposphere throughout the year (the largest amounts are usually found near the tropopause). This maximum is particularly pronounced during the September-November season. On average, throughout the troposphere, the Galapagos has larger ozone amounts than the western Pacific sites. A trajectory climatology is used to identify the major flow regimes that are associated with the characteristic ozone behavior at various altitudes and seasons. The enhanced ozone seen in the midtroposphere during September-November is associated with flow from the continents. In the western Pacific this flow is usually from southern Africa (although 10-day trajectories do not always reach the continent) but also may come from Australia and Indonesia. In the Galapagos the ozone peak in the midtroposphere is seen in flow from the South American continent and particularly from northern Brazil. High ozone concentrations within potential source regions and flow characteristics associated with the ozone mixing ratio peaks seen in both the western and eastern Pacific suggest that these enhanced ozone mixing ratios result from biomass burning. In the upper troposphere, low ozone amounts are seen with flow that originates in the convective western Pacific.

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