Concepts, observations, and simulation of refractive index turbulence in the lower atmosphere
Article first published online: 7 DEC 2012
Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.
Volume 36, Issue 4, pages 643–669, July-August 2001
How to Cite
2001), Concepts, observations, and simulation of refractive index turbulence in the lower atmosphere, Radio Sci., 36(4), 643–669, doi:10.1029/2000RS002380., , , , , and (
- Issue published online: 7 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 7 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 12 DEC 2000
- Manuscript Received: 26 APR 2000
Advances in computers and in computational techniques now allow the calculation of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through simulated refractive index turbulence in the lower atmosphere. Such applications call for instantaneous turbulence fields, not turbulence statistics, the traditional focus of the turbulence community. We clarify their important differences and review what is known about key statistics of refractive index turbulence. We discuss the calculation of EM propagation with a parabolic equation model that uses composite refractive index fields, the larger scales being calculated with a dynamical mesoscale model and the smaller scales being calculated through large-eddy simulation. The locally, instantaneously sharp top of the atmospheric boundary layer can have a profound effect on forward scatter of EM waves. This top appears to be even sharper than is revealed by conventional measurements, particularly in the convective boundary layer.