We have determined concentrations and isotopic compositions of all noble gases in olivine phenocrysts from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) drill core, comprising Mauna Loa lavas in the top 247 m and Mauna Kea lavas down to the preliminary depth of 3109 m. Our aim was to describe the long-term isotopic evolution of noble gases over a significant time fraction of the active life of a major Hawaiian volcano. The He isotopic signature displays a clear temporal trend: 3He/4He ratios increase from MORB-like 9 RA in the youngest lavas to 15 RA in the Mauna Loa section and from ∼7 RA to ∼12 RA in the subaerial Mauna Kea deposits. They remain close to 12 RA in most of the submarine Mauna Kea samples, except for a few excursions with 3He/4He ratios of up to 21 RA in borehole depths between 2000 and 2600 m. The average 3He/4He ratio of 12 RA is lower than that observed in recent eruptions of Kilauea and Loihi seamount and supports the idea of a concentrically zoned Hawaiian plume [Kurz et al., 1996]. The Ne isotopic signature does not show a temporal evolution. It remains plume-like (plotting close to the Loihi–Kilauea correlation line in a Ne three-isotope diagram) over the whole Mauna Kea section in those samples which are not dominated by air-like Ne. Maximum 20Ne/22Ne and 21Ne/22Ne ratios reach 12.10 ± 0.36 and 0.0360 ± 0.0042, respectively. 40Ar/36Ar ratios vary widely between 360 and ∼3300 in the ≥1000°C release steps due to variable atmospheric contributions. In at least one sample, a 40Ar/36Ar ratio of 14,300 ± 910 demonstrates the presence of a MORB-like Ar component. Kr and Xe isotopic compositions are atmospheric throughout. We discuss several possibilities on how to explain the isotopic trends of the noble gases and their correlation to other geochemical parameters. Simple admixture of MORB-like noble gases to the plume component cannot account for the observations. We favor a model involving early melt extraction from the outer plume sections, followed by radiogenic ingrowth and, possibly, some interaction with ambient mantle material.