SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aagaard, K. (1989), A synthesis of the Arctic Ocean circulation, Rapp. P. V. Reun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer., 188, 1122.
  • Aagaard, K., and P. Greisman (1975), Toward new mass and heat budgets for the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 38213827.
  • Aagaard, K., C. Darnail, and P. Greisman (1973), Year-long current measurements in the Greenland-Spitsbergen passage, Deep Sea Res. Oceanogr. Abstr., 20, 743746.
  • Antonov, J. I., S. Levitus, T. P. Boyer, M. E. Conkright, T. D. O'Brien, and C. Stephens (1998), World Ocean Atlas 1998, vol. 1, Temperature of the Atlantic Ocean, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 27, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., Washington, D. C.
  • Blindheim, J. (1989), Cascading of Barents Sea bottom water into the Norwegian Sea, Rapp. P. V. Reun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer., 188, 4958.
  • Boyer, T. P., S. Levitus, J. I. Antonov, M. E. Conkright, T. D. O'Brien, and C. Stephens (1998), World Ocean Atlas 1998, vol. 4, Salinity of the Atlantic Ocean, NOAA Atlas NESDIS30, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., Washington, D. C.
  • Dickson, R. R., T. J. Osborn, J. W. Hurrell, J. Meincke, J. Blindheim, B. Adlandsvik, T. Vinje, G. Alekseev, and W. Maslowski (2000), The Arctic Ocean response to the North Atlantic Oscillation, J. Clim., 13(15), 26712696.
  • Dukowicz, J. K., and R. D. Smith (1994), Implicit free-surface method for the Bryan-Cox-Semtner ocean model, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 79918014.
  • Environmental Working Group (1997), Joint U.S.-Russian Atlas of the Arctic Ocean for the Winter Period [CD-ROM], Natl. Snow and Ice Data Cent., Boulder, Colo.
  • Environmental Working Group (1998), Joint U.S.-Russian Atlas of the Arctic Ocean for the Summer Period [CD-ROM], Natl. Snow and Ice Data Cent., Boulder, Colo.
  • Fahrbach, E., J. Meincke, S. Osterhus, G. Rohardt, U. Schauer, V. Tverberg, and J. Verduin (2001), Direct measurements of volume transports through Fram Strait, Pol. Res., 20(2), 217224.
  • Foldvik, A., K. Aagaard, and T. Torresen (1988), On the velocity field of the East Greenland Current, Deep Sea Res., Part A, 35, 13351354.
  • Gerdes, R., and U. Schauer (1997), Large-scale circulation and water mass distribution in the Arctic Ocean from model results and observations, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 84678483.
  • Greisman, P. (1976), Current measurements in the eastern Greenland Sea, Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Wash., Seattle.
  • Hanzlick, D. J. (1983), The West Spitsbergen Current: Transport, forcing, and variability, Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Wash., Seattle.
  • Harms, I. H. (1997), Water mass transformation in the Barents Sea—Application of the Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model (HamSOM), J. Mar. Sci., 54, 351365.
  • Harms, I. H., and M. J. Karcher (1999), Modeling the seasonal variability of hydrography and circulation in the Kara Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 13,43113,448.
  • Holland, D. M., L. A. Mysak, and J. M. Oberhuber (1996), An investigation of the general circulation of the Arctic Ocean using an isopycnal model, Tellus, Ser. A, 48, 138157.
  • Ingvaldsen, R., H. Loeng, and L. Asplin (2002), Variability in the Atlantic inflow to the Barents Sea based on a one-year time series from moored current meters, Cont. Shelf Res., 22(3), 505519, doi:10.1016/S0278-4343(01)00070-X.
  • Jakobsson, M., N. Cherkis, J. Woodward, R. Macnab, and B. Coakley (2000), New grid of Arctic bathymetry aids scientists and mapmakers, Eos Trans. AGU, 81(9), 89.
  • Johnson, D. R., T. A. McClimans, S. King, and O. Grennes (1997), Fresh water masses in the Kara Sea during summer, J. Mar. Syst., 12, 127145.
  • Johnson, M. A., A. Y. Proshutinsky, and I. V. Polyakov (1999), Atmospheric patterns forcing two regimes of Arctic circulation: A return to anticyclonic conditions? Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(11), 16211624.
  • Jonsson, S. (1989), The structure and forcing of the large- and mesoscale circulation in the Nordic Seas, with special reference to the Fram Strait, Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Bergen, Norway.
  • Karcher, M. J., and J. M. Oberhuber (2002), Pathways and modification of the upper and intermediate waters of the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C6), 3049, doi:10.1029/2000JC000530.
  • Karcher, M. J., R. Gerdes, F. Kauker, and C. Köberle (2003), Arctic warming: Evolution and spreading of the 1990s warm event in the Nordic seas and the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 108(C2), 3034, doi:10.1029/2001JC001265.
  • Killworth, P. D., D. Stainforth, D. J. Webb, and S. M. Patterson (1991), The development of a free surface Bryan-Cox-Semtner ocean model, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 21, 13331348.
  • Loeng, H. (1991), Features of the physical oceanographic conditions of the Barents Sea, Pol. Res., 10, 518.
  • Loeng, H., V. Ozhigin, B. Adlandsvik, and H. Sagen (1993), Current measurements in the northeastern Barents Sea, paper presented at the Statutory Meeting, Int. Counc. for the Explor. of the Sea, Dublin, Ireland.
  • Loeng, H., V. Ozhigin, and B. Adlandsvik (1997), Water fluxes through the Barents Sea, ICES J. Mar. Sci., 54, 310317.
  • Maslowski, W., and W. Walczowski (2002), Circulation of the Baltic Sea and its connection to the pan-Arctic region—A large scale and high-resolution modeling approach, Boreal Environ. Res., 7(4), 319325.
  • Maslowski, W., B. Newton, P. Schlosser, A. Semtner, and D. Martinson (2000), Modeling recent climate variability in the Arctic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27(22), 37433746.
  • Maslowski, W., D. C. Marble, and W. Walczowski (2001), Recent trends in Arctic sea ice, Ann. Glaciol., 33, 545550.
  • Matishov, G., A. Zyev, V. Golubev, N. Adrov, V. Slobodin, S. Levitus, and I. Smolyar (1998), Climatic Atlas of the Barents Sea 1998: Temperature, Salinity and Oxygen, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 26, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., Washington, D. C.
  • McClean, J., W. Maslowski, and M. Maltrud (2001), Towards a coupled environmental prediction system, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., 2073, 10981107.
  • Mesinger, F., and A. Arakawa (1976), Numerical methods used in atmospheric models, paper presented at the Joint Organizing Comm. World Meteorol. Organ./Int. Counc. of Sci. Unions, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Mosby, H. (1962), Water, salt, and heat balance of the North Polar Sea and of the Norwegian Sea, Geophys. Publ., 24, 289313.
  • Nansen, F. (1906), Northern water: Captain Roald Amundsen's oceanographic observations in the Arctic Seas in 1901, Videnskabs-Selskabets Skr., I, Math. Naturv., 1906(3), 145 pp.
  • Ozhigin, V. K., A. G. Trofimov, and V. A. Ivshin (2000), The Eastern Basin Water and currents in the Barents Sea, paper presented at the Annual Science Conference, Int. Counc. for the Explor. of the Sea, Brugge, Belgium.
  • Parkinson, C. L., and W. M. Washington (1979), A large-scale numerical model of sea ice, J. Geophys. Res., 84, 311337.
  • Parsons, A. R. (1995), On the Barents Sea Polar Front in summer and interpretations of the associated regional oceanography using an Arctic Ocean general circulation model, Ph.D. dissertation, Nav. Postgrad. Sch., Monterey, Calif.
  • Parsons, A. R., R. H. Bourke, R. D. Muench, C.-S. Chiu, J. F. Lynch, J. H. Miller, A. J. Plueddemann, and R. Pawlowicz (1996), The Barents Sea polar front in summer, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 14,20114,221.
  • Pfirman, S. L., D. Bauch, and T. Gammelsrod (1994), The northern Barents Sea: Water mass distribution and modification, in The Polar Oceans and Their Role in Shaping the Global Environment, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 85, edited by O. M. Johannesen, R. D. Muench, and J. E. Overland, pp. 7794, AGU, Washington, D. C.
  • Proshutinsky, A., and M. Johnson (1997), Two circulation regimes of the wind-driven Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 12,49312,514.
  • Roach, A. T., K. Aagaard, C. H. Pease, S. A. Salo, T. J. Weingartner, V. Pavlov, and M. Kulakov (1995), Direct measurements of transport and water properties through the Bering Strait, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 18,44318,457.
  • Rudels, B. (1987), On the mass balance of the Polar Ocean, with special emphasis on the Fram Strait, Norw. Polarinst. Skr., 188, 53 pp.
  • Rudels, B., and H. J. Friedrich (2000), The transformations of Atlantic Water in the Arctic Ocean and their significance for the freshwater budget, in The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean, edited by E. L. Lewis et al., pp. 503532, Kluwer Acad., Norwell, Mass.
  • Rudels, B., E. P. Jones, L. G. Anderson, and G. Kattner (1994), On the intermediate depth waters of the Arctic Ocean, in The Polar Oceans and Their Role in Shaping the Global Environment, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 85, edited by O. M. Johannesen, R. D. Muench, and J. E. Overland, pp. 3346, AGU, Washington, D. C.
  • Schauer, U., R. D. Muench, B. Rudels, and L. Timokhow (1997), Impact of eastern Arctic shelf waters on the Nansen Basin intermediate layers, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 33713382.
  • Schauer, U., B. Rudels, E. P. Jones, L. G. Anderson, R. D. Muench, G. Björk, J. H. Swift, V. Ivanov, and A.-M. Larsson (2002), Confluence and redistribution of Atlantic Water in the Nansen, Amundsen and Makarov basins, Ann. Geophys., 20(2), 257273.
  • Semtner, A. J. (1976), A model for the thermodynamic growth of sea ice in numerical investigations of climate, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, 379389.
  • Semtner, A. J. (1995), Modeling ocean circulation, Science, 269, 13791385.
  • Semtner, A. J.Jr., and R. M. Chervin (1992), Ocean circulation from a global eddy-resolving model, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 54935550.
  • Simonsen, K., and P. M. Haugan (1996), Heat budgets of the Arctic Mediterranean and sea surface heat flux parameterizations for the Nordic Seas, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 65536576.
  • Steele, M., R. Morley, and W. Ermold (2000), PHC: A global ocean hydrography with a high quality Arctic Ocean, J. Clim., 14(9), 20792087.
  • Steele, M., W. Ermold, S. Häkkinen, D. Holland, G. Holloway, M. Karcher, F. Kauker, W. Maslowski, N. Steiner, and J. Zhang (2001), Adrift in the Beaufort Gyre: A model intercomparison, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 29352938.
  • Timofeyev, V. T. (1962), The movement of Atlantic water and heat into the Arctic Sea basin, Deep Sea Res. Oceanogr. Abstr., 9, 358361.
  • Vowinckel, E., and S. Orvig (1970), The climate of the North Polar Basin, in Climates of the Polar Regions, edited by S. Orvig, pp. 129226, Elsevier Sci., New York.
  • Zhang, J., D. A. Rothrock, and M. Steele (2000), Recent changes in Arctic sea ice: The interplay between ice dynamics and thermodynamics, J. Clim., 13, 30993114.
  • Zhang, Y., W. Maslowski, and A. J. Semtner (1999), Impact of mesoscale ocean currents on sea ice in high-resolution Arctic ice and ocean simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 18,40918,429.