SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Baumgartner, A., and E. Reichel, The World Water Balance, R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich, Germany, 1975.
  • Behl, R. J., and J. P. Kennett, Brief interstadial events in the Santa barbara Basin, NE Pacific, during the past 60 kyr, Nature, 379, 243246, 1996.
  • Boyle, E. A., Cadmium and δ13C paleochemical ocean distributions during the Stage 2 glacial maximum, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 20, 245287, 1992.
  • Broecker, W. S., The great ocean conveyor, Oceanography, 4, 7989, 1991.
  • Broecker, W. S., and G. H. Denton, The role of ocean-atmosphere reorganisations in glacial cycles, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 53, 24652501, 1989.
  • Coachman, L. K., and K. Aagaard, Re-evaluation of water transports in the vicinity of the Bering Strait, in The Eastern Bering Sea Shelf: Oceanography and Resources, vol. 1, edited by D. W. Hood, and J. A. Calder, pp. 95110, Natl. Oceanic and Atmos. Admin., Silver Spring, Md., 1981.
  • Conkright, M., S. Levitus, T. O'Brien, T. Boyer, J. Antonov, and C. Stephens, World Ocean Atlas 1998 CD-ROM Data Set Documentation, Tech. Rep. 15, 16 pp., Natl. Oceanogr. Data Cent., Silver Spring, MD, 1998.
  • da Silva, A. M., C. C. Young, and S. Levitus, Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 8, Natl. Oceanic and Atmos. Admin., Silver Spring, Md., 1994.
  • Dean, W. E., J. V. Gardner, and E. Hemphill-Haley, Changes in redox conditions in deep-sea sediments of the subarctic North Pacific Ocean: Possible evidence for the presence of North Pacific deep water, Paleoceanography, 4, 639653, 1989.
  • Fekece, B. M., C. J. Vorosmarty, and W. Grabs, Global, composite runoff fields based on observed river discharge and simulated water balances, technical report, 115 pp., Geol. Res. and Dev. Cent., Bandung, Indonesia, 2000.
  • Fofonoff, N. P., and F. W. Dobson, Transport computations for the North Pacific Ocean 1950–1959, 10-year means and standard deviations by months; wind stress and vertical velocity, annual means 1955–1960, Manuscr. Rep. Ser. (Oceanogr. Limnol.) 166, 179 pp., Fish. Res. Board of Can., Halifax, N.S., Canada, 1963.
  • Hellerman, S., and M. Rosenstein, Normal monthly wind stress over the world ocean with error estimates, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, 10931104, 1983.
  • Kalnay, E., et al., The NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 437471, 1996.
  • Keigwin, L. D., Glacial-age hydrography of the far northwest Pacific Ocean, Paleoceanography, 13, 323339, 1998.
  • Levitus, S., and T. Boyer, World Ocean Atlas 1994, vol. 3, Salinity, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 4, Natl. Oceanic and Atmos. Admin., Silver Spring, Md., 1994.
  • Mix, A., D. C. Lund, N. G. Pisias, P. Boden, L. Bornmaln, M. Lyle, and J. Pike, Rapid climate oscillations in the northeast Pacific during the last deglaciation reflect Northern and Southern Hemisphere sources, in Mechanisms of Global Climate Change, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 112, edited by P. U. Clark, R. S. Webb, and L. D. Keigwin, AGU, Washington, D. C., 1999.
  • Owens, W. B., and B. A. Warren, Deep circulation in the northwest corner of the Pacific Ocean, Deep Sea Res., Part I, 48, 959993, 2001.
  • Rahmstorf, S., Bifurcations of the Atlantic thermohaline circualtion in response to changes in the hydrological cycle, Nature, 378, 145149, 1995.
  • Reid, J. L.Jr., Northwest Pacific Ocean waters in winter, Johns Hopkins Oceanogr. Stud., 2, 85 pp., 1973.
  • Reid, J. L.Jr., On the total geostrophic circulation of the Pacific Ocean: Flow patterns, tracers, and transports, Prog. Oceanogr., 39, 263352, 1997.
  • Roach, A. T., K. Aagaard, C. H. Pease, S. A. Salo, T. Weingartner, V. Pavlov, and M. Mulakov, Direct measurements of transport and water properties through the Bering Strait, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 18,44318,458, 1995.
  • Roemmich, D., and T. McCallister, Large scale circulation of the North Pacific Ocean, Prog. Oceanogr., 22, 171204, 1989.
  • Stammer, D., On eddy characteristics, eddy transports, and mean flow properties, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 727739, 1998.
  • Sverdrup, H. U., Wind-driven currents in a baroclinic ocean, with application to the equatorial currents of the eastern Pacific, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 33, 318326, 1947.
  • Talley, L. D., Some aspects of ocean heat transport by the shallow, intermediate and deep circulations, in Mechanisms of Global Climate Change at Millenial Time Scales, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 112, edited by P. U. Clark, R. S. Webb, and L. D. Keigwin, pp. 122, AGU, Washington, D. C., 1999.
  • Trenberth, K. E., and C. J. Guillemot, Evaluation of the atmospheric moisture and hydrological cycle in the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses, Clim. Dyn., 14, 213231, 1998.
  • Trenberth, K., J. Olson, and W. Large, A global ocean wind stress climatology based on ECMWF analyses, Tech. Rep. NCAR/TN-338 + STR, Natl. Cent. for Atmos. Res., Boulder, Colo., 1989.
  • Trenberth, K. E., D. P. Stephaniak, and J. M. Caron, The global monsoon as seen through the divergent atmospheric circulation, J. Clim., 13, 39693993, 2000.
  • van Geen, A., R. G. Fairbanks, P. Dartnell, M. McGann, J. V. Gardner, and M. Kashgarian, Ventilation changes in the northeast Pacific during the last deglaciation, Paleoceanography, 11, 519528, 1996.
  • Van Scoy, K. A., and E. R. M. Druffel, Ventilation and transport of thermohaline and intermediate waters in the Northeast Pacific during recent El Ninos, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 18,08318,088, 1993.
  • Warner, M. J., J. L. Bullister, D. P. Wisegarver, R. H. Gammon, and R. F. Weiss, Basin-wide distributions of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 and CFC-12 in the North Pacific: 1985–1989, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 20,52520,542, 1996.
  • Warren, B. A., Why is no deep water formed in the North Pacific? J. Mar. Res., 41, 327347, 1983.
  • Weyl, P. K., The role of the oceans in climatic change: A theory of the ice ages, Meteorol. Monogr., 8, 3762, 1968.
  • Wijffels, S. E., R. W. Schmitt, H. L. Bryden, and A. Stigebrandt, Transport of freshwater by the oceans, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22, 155162, 1992.
  • Wong, A. P. S., N. L. Bindoff, and J. A. Church, Large-scale freshening of intermediate waters in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, Nature, 400, 440443, 1999.
  • Wyrtki, K., The oxygen minima in relation to ocean circulation, Deep Sea Res., 9, 1123, 1962.
  • Xie, P., and P. A. Arkin, Analysis of global precipitation using gauge observations, satellite estimates and numerical model predictions, J. Clim., 9, 840858, 1996.
  • You, Y., N. Suginohara, M. Fukasawa, I. Yasuda, I. Kaneko, H. Yoritaka, and M. Kawamiya, Roles of the Okhotsk Sea and Gulf of Alaska in forming the North Pacific Intermediate Water, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 32533280, 2000.
  • Zaucker, F., T. F. Stocker, and W. S. Broecker, Atmospheric freshwater fluxes and their effect on the global thermohaline circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 12,44312,457, 1994.
  • Zheng, Y., A. van Geen, R. F. Anderson, J. V. Gardner, and W. E. Dean, Intensification of the northeast Pacific oxygen-minimum zone during the Bölling-Alleröd warm period, Paleoceanography, 15, 528536, 2000.