SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Alvalá, R. C. S., et al., Intra diurnal and seasonal variability of soil temperature, heat flux, soil moisture content and thermal properties under forest and pasture in Rondônia, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2000JD000337, in press, 2002.
  • Anagnostou, E. N., and C. A. Morales, Rainfall estimation from TOGA radar observations during LBA field campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2000JD000337, in press, 2002.
  • Andreae, M. O., et al., Biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, trace gases and aerosols in Amazonia: The LBA-EUSTACH experiments, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JD000324, in press, 2002.
  • Artaxo, P., J. V. Vanderlei Martins, M. A. Yamasoe, A. S. Procópio, T. M. Pauliquevis, M. O. Andreae, P. Guyon, L. V. Gatti, and A. M. Cordova Leal, Physical and chemical properties of aerosols in the wet and dry seasons in Rondônia, Amazônia, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JD000666, in press, 2002.
  • Bell, G. D., M. S. Halpert, C. F. Ropelewski, V. E. Kousky, A. V. Douglas, R. C. Schnell, and M. E. Gelman, Climate assessment for 1998, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 80(5), S1S48, 1999.
  • Betts, A. K., and C. Jacob, Evaluation of the diurnal cycle of precipitation, surface thermodynamics and surface fluxes in the ECMWF model using LBA data, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JD000427, in press, 2002.
  • Betts, A. K., J. D. Fuentes, M. Garstang, and J. H. Ball, Surface diurnal cycle and boundary layer structure over Rondônia during the rainy season, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2000JD000158, in press, 2002a.
  • Betts, A. K., L. Gatti, M. A. F. Silva Dias, and J. Fuentes, Transport of ozone to the surface by downdrafts at night, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2000JD000158, in press, 2002b.
  • Bolzan, M. J. A., F. M. Ramos, L. D. A. Sá, C. R. Neto, and R. R. Rosa, Analysis of fully developed turbulence above and below Amazon forest canopy using Tsallis' generalized thermostatistics, J. Geophys. Res., in press, 2002.
  • Bosveld, F. C., A. A. M. Holtslag, and B. J. J. M. Van Den Hurk, Nighttime convection in the interior of a dense Douglas fir forest, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 93, 171195, 1999.
  • Braud, I., A. C. Dantas-Antonino, M. Vauclin, J. L. Thony, and P. Ruelle, A simple soil plant atmosphere transfer model (SiSPAT): Development and field verification, J. Hydrol., 166, 213250, 1995.
  • Brunet, Y., and M. R. Irvine, The control of coherent eddies in vegetation canopies: Streamwise structure spacing, canopy shear scale and atmospheric stability, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 94, 139163, 2000.
  • Carey, L. D., R. Cifelli, W. A. Petersen, S. A. Rutledge, and M. A. F. Silva Dias, Characteristics of Amazonian rain measured during TRMM-LBA, paper presented at 30th Conference on Radar Meteorology, p. 12A.9, Am. Meteorol. Soc., Boston, Mass., 2001.
  • Carvalho, L. M. V., C. Jones, and M. A. F. Silva Dias, Intraseasonal large-scale circulations and mesoscale convective activity in tropical South America during the TRMM-LBA campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JD000745, in press, 2002.
  • Cifelli, R., W. A. Petersen, L. D. Carey, S. A. Rutledge, and M. A. F. Silva Dias, Radar observations of kinematic, microphysical, and precipitation characteristics of two MCSs in TRMM-LBA, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2000JD000264, in press, 2002.
  • Clough, S. A., and M. J. Iacono, Line-by-line calculation of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates, 2, Application to carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide and the halocarbons, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 16,51916,535, 1995.
  • Cohen, J. C., M. A. F. Silva Dias, and C. Nobre, Climatological aspects of Amazon squall lines (in Portuguese Aspectos climatológicos das linhas de instabilidade na Amazônia), Climanálise, 4(11), 3440, 1989.
  • Cohen, J. C. P., M. A. Silva Dias, and C. A. Nobre, Environmental conditions associated with Amazonian squall lines: Case study, Mon. Weather Rev., 123, 31633174, 1995.
  • Cutrim, E., D. W. Martin, and R. Rabin, Enhancement of cumulus clouds over deforested lands in Amazonia, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 76(10), 18011805, 1995.
  • De Bruin, H. A. R., and C. J. Moore, Zero-plane displacement and roughness length for tall vegetation, derived from a simple mass conservation hypothesis, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 31, 3949, 1985.
  • DeMaria, M., Linear response of a stratified tropical atmosphere to convective forcing, J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 19441959, 1985.
  • Douglas, M. W. and M. Peña, The Pan American Climate Studies Sounding Network (PACS-SONET) recent history and planned improvements, paper presented as Extended Abstracts at the 6th International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography, 3–7 April 2000, Santiago, Chile, pp. 258259, Am. Meteorol. Soc., Boston, Mass., 2000.
  • Ellingson, R. G., J. Ellis, and S. Fels, The intercomparison of radiation codes used in climate models: Long wave results, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 89298953, 1991.
  • Fan, S. M., S. C. Wofsy, P. S. Bakwin, D. J. Jacob, and D. R. Fitzjarrald, Atmosphere-biosphere exchange of CO2-O3 in the central Amazon forest, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 16,85116,864, 1990.
  • Fisch, G., A. D. Culf, and C. A. Nobre, Modelling convective boundary layer growth in Rondonia, in Amazonian Deforestation and Climate, edited by J. H. C. Gash et al., pp. 425436, John Wiley, New York, 1996.
  • Fisch, G., J. Tota, L. Machado, B. Ferrier, M. Silva Dias, A. J. Dolman, J. Halverson, and J. Fuentes, Atmospheric boundary layer growth during the LBA/TRMM experiment, Proceedings 15th Conference on Hydrology, paper presented at the 80th AMS Annual Meeting, Long Beach, Calif., 9–14 January, pp. 319322, Am. Meteorol. Soc., Boston, Mass., 2000.
  • Fitzjarrald, D. R., K. E. Moore, O. M. R. Cabral, J. Scolar, A. O. Manzi, and L. D. A. Sá, Daytime turbulent exchange between the Amazon forest and the atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 16,82516,838, 1990.
  • Fomin, B. A., Effective interpolation technique for line-by-line calculations of radiation absorption in gases, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 53(6), 663669, 1995.
  • Formenti, P., M. O. Andreae, L. Lange, G. Roberts, J. Cafmeyer, I. Rajta, W. Maenhaut, B. N. Holben, P. Artaxo, and J. Lelieveld, Saharan dust in Brazil and Suriname during the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA)-Cooperative LBA Regional Experiment (CLAIRE) in March 1998, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 14,91914,934, 2001.
  • Gandu, A. W., and P. L. Silva Dias, Impact of tropical heat sources on the South American tropospheric upper circulation and subsidence, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 60016015, 1998.
  • Garratt, J. R., The Atmospheric Boundary Layer, 316 pp., Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 1992.
  • Garstang, M., et al., Amazon coastal squall lines, part 1, Structure and kinematics, Mon. Weather Rev., 122, 608622, 1994.
  • Gash, J. H. C., A. Nobre, J. M. Roberts, and R. L. Victoria, An overview of ABRACOS, in Amazon Deforestation and Climate, edited by Gash et al., pp. 114, John Wiley, New York, 1996.
  • Greco, S., R. Swap, M. Garstang, S. Ulanski, M. Shipham, R. C. Harris, R. Talbot, M. O. Andreae, and P. Artaxo, Rainfall and surface kinematics conditions over central Amazonia during ABLE 2B, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 17,00117,014, 1990.
  • Greco, S., J. Scala, J. Halverson, H. L. Massie, W. K. Tao, and M. Garstang, Amazon coastal squall lines, 2, Heat and moisture transports, Mon. Weather Rev., 122, 623635, 1994.
  • Gregory, G. L., E. V. Browell, and L. S. Warren, Boundary layer ozone: An airborne survey above the Amazon basin, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 4521468, 1988.
  • Grimm, A. M., and P. L. Silva Dias, Analysis of tropical extratropical interactions with influence functions of a barotropic model, J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 35383555, 1995.
  • Han, Y., J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, P. D. Brown, and S. A. Clough, Infrared spectral radiance measurements in the tropical Pacific atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 43534356, 1997.
  • Harris, R. C., et al., The Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE-2A): Dry season 1985, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 13511360, 1988.
  • Harris, R. C., et al., The Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE-2B): Wet season 1987, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 16,72116,736, 1990.
  • Herdies, D. L., A. da Silva, and M. A. F. Silva Dias, The bi-modal pattern of the summer circulation over South America, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JD000997, in press, 2002.
  • Horel, J., A. Hahmann, and J. Geiler, An investigation of the annual cycle of the convective activity over the tropical Americas, J. Clim., 2, 13881403, 1989.
  • Jacobs, A. F. G., J. H. Van Boxel, and R. M. M. El-Kilani, Nighttime free convection characteristics within a plant canopy, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 71, 375391, 1994.
  • Kayano, M. T., and V. E. Kousky, Zonally symmetric and asymmetric features of the tropospheric Madden–Julian oscillation, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 13,70313,712, 1998.
  • Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H., I. M. O. Da Silva, and E. V. Browell, Ozone measurements in Amazonia: Dry season versus wet season, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 16,91316,926, 1990.
  • Kirkman, G. A., A. Gut, C. Ammann, L. V. Gatti, M. A. L. Moura, and F. X. Meixner, Surface exchange of nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone at a cattle pasture in Rondonia, Brazil, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JD000523, in press, 2002.
  • Kousky, V. E., and M. T. Kayano, Principal modes of outgoing longwave radiation and 250 mb circulation for the South-American sector, J. Clim., 7, 11311143, 1994.
  • Kruijt, B., Y. Malhi, J. Lloyd, A. D. Nobre, A. C. Miranda, M. G. P. Pereira, A. Culf, and J. Grace, Turbulence statistics above and within two Amazon rain forest canopies, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 94, 297331, 2000.
  • Laurent, H., L. A. T. Machado, C. A. Morales, and L. Durieux, Characteristics of the Amazonian mesoscale convective systems observed from satellite and radar during the WETAMC/LBA experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JD000337, in press, 2002.
  • LBA, Concise Experimental Plan, INPE, São José dos Campos, Brazil, 1996. Also available at http://lba.cptec.inpe.br.
  • Machado, L. A. T., H. Laurent, and A. A. Lima, The diurnal march of the convection observed during TRMM-WETAMC/LBA, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JD000338, in press, 2002.
  • Madden, R. A., and P. R. Julian, Observations of the 40–50-day tropical oscillation: A review, Mon. Weather Rev., 122, 814837, 1994.
  • Mahrt, L., X. Lee, A. Black, H. Neumann, and R. M. Staebler, Nocturnal mixing in a forest subcanopy, Agric. For. Meteorol., 101, 6778, 2000.
  • Maia Alves, S. F., G. Fisch, and I. F. Vendrame, Modificações do microclima e regime hidrológico devido ao desmatamento na Amazônia, Acta Amazon., 29(3), 395409, 1999.
  • Manzi, A. O., et al., Measurements of PAR, solar and terrestrial radiation above forest and pasture sites in Rondônia, paper presented at 1st LBA Scientific Conference, Book of Abstracts, Belém, 26–30 June, pp. 272273, Minist. Of Sci. anf Technol., Brasilia, Brazil, 2000.
  • Marengo, J. A., M. Douglas, and P. Silva Dias, The South American low-level jet east of the Andes during the LBA-TRMM and WET AMC campaign of January–February 1999, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JD001188, in press, 2002.
  • Marton, E. and P. L. Silva Dias, Variabilidade intrasazonal na zona de Convergência do Atlântico Sul. (Intraseasonal variability of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone), paper presented at IX Congreso Latinoamericano e Iberico de Meteorologia, 7–11 May, Buenos Aires, Argentina, p. 179, Cent. Argen. de Meteor., Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2001.
  • Mlawer, E. J., P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, L. C. Harrison, J. J. Michalsky, P. W. Kiedron, and T. Shippert, Comparison of spectral direct and diffuse solar irradiance measurements and calculations for cloud-free conditions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 26532656, 2000.
  • Mohr, K. I., and E. J. Zipser, Mesoscale convective systems defined by their 85 GHz ice scattering signature: Size and intensity comparison over tropical oceans and continents, Mon. Weather Rev., 124, 24172437, 1996.
  • Mohr, K. I., J. S. Famiglietti, and E. J. Zipser, The contribution to tropical rainfall with respect to convective system type, size, and intensity estimated from the ice scattering signature, J. Appl. Meteorol., 38, 596606, 1999.
  • Molion, L. C. B., and C. J. Moore, Estimating the zero-plane displacement for tall vegetation using a mass conservative method, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 26, 115125, 1983.
  • Moura, R. G., J. Tota, A. O. Manzi, and L. Gu, Medidas e modelagem da radiação solar interceptada pela vegetação durante a estação chuvosa na floresta da REBIO-JARU, paper presented at 1st LBA Scientific Conference, Book of Abstracts, Belém, 26–30 June, pp. 277278, Minist. Of Sci. anf Technol., Brasilia, Brazil, 2000.
  • Negri, A. J., L. Xu, and R. F. Adler, A TRMM-calibrated infrared rainfall algorithm applied over Brazil, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JD000265, in press, 2002.
  • Nobre, C. A., P. J. Sellers, and J. Shukla, Amazonian deforestation and regional climate change, J. Clim., 4, 957987, 1991.
  • Nogues-Paegle, J., and K. M. Mo, Alternating wet and dry conditions over South America during summer, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 279291, 1997.
  • Pereira, L. G. P., M. A. F. Silva Dias, A. J. Peeira Filho, and P. T. Matsuo, Timing of convection initiation during the WETAMC-LBA, paper presented at 1st LBA Scientific Conference, Book of Abstracts, 26–30 June, p. 232, Minist. Of Sci. anf Technol., Brasilia, Brazil, 2000.
  • Pereira Filho, A., M. A. F. Silva Dias, R. I. Albrecht, L. G. P. Pereira, A. W. Gandú, and O. Massambani, Multi-sensor analysis of a squall line in the Amazon region, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2000JD000520, in press, 2002.
  • Petersen, W. A., and S. A. Rutledge, Regional variability in tropical convection: Observations from TRMM, J. Clim., 14, 35663586, 2001.
  • Petersen, W. A., S. A. Rutledge, R. Cifelli, and R. Blakeslee, Convective regimes observed during TRMM/LBA: An integrated view from TRMM satellite and Brazilian lightning detection network, TRMM Workshop, 2000.
  • Ramos, F. M., R. R. Rosa, C. Rodrigues Neto, M. J. A. Bolzan, L. D. A. Sá, and H. F. C. Velho, Nonextensive statistics and three-dimensional fully developed turbulence, Physica A, 295, 250253, 2001.
  • Rao, V. B., and K. Hada, Characteristics of rainfall over Brazil: Annual variations and connections with the southern oscillation, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 42, 8191, 1990.
  • Raupach, M. R., and A. S. Thom, Turbulence in and above plant canopies, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 13, 97129, 1981.
  • Raupach, M. R., J. J. Finnigan, and Y. Brunet, Coherent eddies and turbulence in vegetation canopies: The mixing-layer analogy, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 78, 351382, March 1996.
  • Rickenbach, T. M., R. Nieto Ferreira, J. Halverson, D. L. Herdies, and M. A. F. Silva Dias, Modulation of convection in the south western Amazon basin by stationary fronts, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JD000263, in press, 2002.
  • Roberts, G. C., M. O. Andreae, J. Zhou, and P. Artaxo, Cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon Basin: “Marine” conditions over a continent? Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 28072810, 2001.
  • Rosenfeld, D., TRMM observed first evidence of smoke from forest fires inhibiting rainfall, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 31053108, 1999.
  • Rutledge, S. A., W. A. Petersen, L. D. Carey, R. Cifelli, and M. A. F. Silva Dias, Synoptic, mesoscale and microphysical characteristics of convective systems observed during TRMM-LBA, paper presented at 4th International Scientific Conference on the Global Energy and Water Cycle, Book of Abstracts, 10–14 September, p.14, World Meteorol. Org., Geneva, Switzerland, 2001.
  • Sellers, P. J., D. A. Randall, G. J. Collatz, J. A. Berry, C. B. Field, D. A. Dazlich, C. Zhang, G. D. Collelo, and L. Bounoua, A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMs, part I, model formulation, J. Clim., 9, 676705, 1996.
  • Shen, S., and M. Y. Leclerc, Modelling the turbulence structure in the canopy layer, Agric. For. Meteorol., 87, 325, November 1997.
  • Shuttleworth, W. J., Micrometeorology of temperate and tropical forest, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B, 324(1223), 299334, 1989.
  • Shuttleworth, J. W., et al., Daily variations of temperature and humidity within and above Amazonian forest, Weather, 40(4), 102108, 1985.
  • Silva Dias, M. A. F., Storms in Brazil, in Hazards and Disasters Series, Storms Volume II, edited by R. Pielke Sr., and R. Pielke Jr., pp. 207219, Routledge, New York, 1999.
  • Silva Dias, M. A. F., and R. N. Ferreira, Application of a linear spectral model to the study of Amazonian squall lines, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 20,40520,419, 1992.
  • Silva Dias, M. A. F., and P. Regnier, Simulation of mesoscale circulations in a deforested area of Rondonia in the dry season, in Amazonian Deforestation and Climate, edited by J. Gash et al., pp. 531547, John Wiley, New York, 1996.
  • Silva Dias, P. L., W. H. Schubert, and M. DeMaria, Large-scale response of the tropical atmosphere to transient convection, J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 26892707, 1983.
  • Silva Dias, P. L., M. A. F. Silva Dias, and D. S. Moreira, Mesoscale reanalysis, Proceedings 15th Conference on Hydrology, paper presented at 80th AMS Annual Meeting, Long Beach, Calif., 9–14 January, Am. Meteorol. Soc., Boston, Mass., 2000.
  • Silva Dias, M. A. F., et al., A case study of the organization of convection into precipitating convective lines in the southwest Amazon, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JD000375, in press, 2002.
  • Souza, E. P., N. O. Rennó, and M. A. F. Silva Dias, Convective circulations induced by surface heterogeneities, J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 29152922, 2000.
  • Tokai, A., A. Krueger, W. F. Krajewski, and A. J. Pereira Filho, Measurements of drop size distribution in southwestern Amazon Basin, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JD000358, in press, 2002.
  • Tota, J., G. Fisch, P. J. Oliveira, J. D. Fuentes, and J. Siegler, Variabilidade da precipitação em área de pastagem durante o experimento LBA/TRMM, Acta Amazon., 30(4), 305318, 2000.
  • Van Wijk, W. R., Physics of Plant Environment, 382 pp., North-Holland, New York, 1963.
  • Viswanadham, Y., L. C. B. Molion, A. O. Manzi, L. D. A. Sá, V. P. Silva Filho, R. G. B. André, J. L. M. Nogueira, and R. C. Dos Santos, Micrometeorological measurements in Amazon forest during GTE/ABLE-2A mission, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 13,66913,682, 1990.
  • Von Randow, C., L. D. A. Sá, G. S. S. D. Prasad, A. Manzi, P. R. A. Arlino, and B. Kruijt, Scale variability of atmospheric surface layer fluxes of energy and carbon over a tropical rain forest in south-west Amazonia, I, Diurnal conditions, J. Geophys. Res., in press, 2002.
  • Wang, J., R. Bras, and E. A. B. Eltahir, The impact of observed deforestation on the mesoscale distribution of rainfall and clouds in Amazonia, J. Hydrometeorol., 1(6), 267286, 2000.
  • Williams, E., et al., Contrasting convective regimes over the Amazon: Implications for cloud electrification, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JD000380, in press, 2002.
  • Wright, I. R., J. H. C. Gash, H. R. Da Rocha, W. J. Shuttleworth, C. A. Nobre, G. T. Maitelli, C. A. G. P. Zamparoni, and P. R. A. Carvalho, Dry season micrometeorology of central Amazonian ranchland, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 118(508), 10831099, 1992.
  • Zipser, E. J., The role of organized unsaturated convective downdrafts in the structure and rapid decay of an equatorial disturbance, J. Appl. Meteorol., 8, 799814, 1969.
  • Zipser, E. J., Mesoscale and convective-scale downdrafts as distinct components of squall-line structure, Mon. Weather Rev., 105, 15681589, 1977.
  • Zipser, E. J., and K. R. Lutz, The vertical profile of radar reflectivity of convective cells: A strong indicator of storm intensity and lightning probability, Mon. Weather Rev., 122, 17511759, 33, 1994.