SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Andreae, M. O., and P. Merlet, Emissions of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15(4), 10.1029/2000GB001382, 2002.
  • Bishop, G. A., D. H. Stedman, M. Hektner, and J. D. Ray, An in-use snowmobile emission survey in Yellowstone National Park, Environ. Sci. Technol., 33(14), 39243926, 1999.
  • Bradley, K. S., D. H. Stedman, and G. A. Bishop, A global inventory of CO emissions form motor vehicles, Chemosphere: Global Change Sci., 1(1), 6572, 1999.
  • Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) New Delhi, Assessment of vehicular pollution in metropolitan cities, CUPS/17/1988–89, 20 pp., 1989.
  • Chan, L.-M., and C. S. Weaver, Motorcycle emission standards and emission control technology, 107 pp., World Bank Rep., Washington, D. C., 1994.
  • Chan, C.-C., C.-K. Nien, C.-Y. Tsai, and G.-R. Her, Comparison of tail-pipe emissions from motorcycles and passenger cars, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 45, 116124, 1995.
  • Chen, L. W. A., B. G. Doddridge, R. R. Dickerson, and P. Mueller, Seasonal variations in elemental carbon aerosol, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide: Implications for sources, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(9), 17111714, 2001.
  • Chow, J. C., J. G. Watson, D. Crow, D. H. Lowenthal, and T. Merrifield, Comparison of INPROVE and NIOSH carbon measurements, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 34, 2334, 2001.
  • Chowdhury, Z., L. S. Hughes, L. G. Salmon, and G. R. Cass, Atmospheric particle size and composition measurements to support light extinction calculations over the Indian Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 106(22), 28,59728,606, 2001.
  • Cooke, W. F., and J. J. N. Wilson, A global black carbon aerosol model, J. Geophys. Res., 101(14), 19,39519,409, 1996.
  • Cooke, W. F., S. G. Jennings, and T. G. Spain, Black carbon measurements at Mace Head, 1989–1996, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D21), 25,33925,346, 1997.
  • Cooke, W. F., C. Liousse, H. Cachier, and J. Feichter, Construction of a 1 × 1 fossil fuel emissions data set for carbonaceous aerosols and implementation and radiative impact in the ECHAM4 model, J. Geophys. Res., 104(18), 22,13722,162, 1999.
  • Crutzen, P. J., and M. O. Andreae, Biomass burning in the tropics: Impact on atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles, Science, 250, 16691678, 1990.
  • Das, S., R. Schmoyer, G. Harrison, and K. Hausker, Prospects of inspection and maintenance of two-wheelers in India, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 51, 13911400, 2001.
  • de Laat, A. T. J., INDOEX Chemistry of the Indian Ocean atmosphere, Ph.D. dissertation, Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research (IMAU), Utrecht University, 141 pp., 2000.
  • de Laat, A. T. J., M. Zachariasse, G. J. Roelofs, P. van Velthoven, R. R. Dickerson, K. P. Rhoads, S. J. Oltmans, and J. Lelieveld, Tropospheric O3 distribution over the Indian Ocean during spring 1995, and evaluation of a chemistry-climate model, J. Geophys. Res., 104(11), 13,88113,893, 1999.
  • de Laat, A. T. J., G. J. Roelofs, J. Lelieveld, R. R. Dickerson, and J. M. Lobert, Source Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Pollution During INDOEX 1999, J. Geophys. Res., 106(22), 28,48128,496, 2000.
  • Downing, R. J., R. Ramankutty, and J. J. Shah, RAINS-ASIA: An Assessment Model for Acid Deposition in Asia, 68 pp., World Bank, Washington, D. C., 1997.
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, AP-42, 5th ed., Research Triangle Park, N. C., 1996.
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Emissions Inventory (NEI) Air Pollutant Emissions Trends, Research Triangle Park, N. C., 2000.
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Criteria Document for Particulate Air Pollution, Research Triangle Park, N. C., 2001.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), FAOSTAT Agricultural Data, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, 2000.
  • Finlayson-Pitts, B. J., and J. N. Pitts Jr., Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere, 969 pp., Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2000.
  • Foell, W., et al., Energy use, emissions, and air pollution reduction strategies in Asia, Water Air Soil Pollut., 85, 22772282, 1995.
  • Gabele, P. A., and S. M. Pyle, Emissions from two outboard engines operating on reformulated gasoline containing MTBE, Environ. Sci. Technol., 34(3), 368372, 2000.
  • Galanter, M., H. Levy II, and G. R. Carmichael, Impacts of biomass burning on tropospheric CO, NOx and O3, J. Geophys. Res., 105(5), 66336653, 2000.
  • Galloway, J. N., D. L. Savoie, W. C. Keene, and J. M. Prospero, The temporal and spatial variability of scavenging ratios for NSS sulfate, nitrate, methanesulfonate, and sodium in the atmosphere over the North Atlantic Ocean, Atmos. Environ., 27(2), 235250, 1993.
  • Gillies, J. A., and A. W. Gertler, Comparison and evaluation of chemically speciated mobile source PM2.5 particulate matter profiles, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 50, 14591480, 2000.
  • Guenther, A., et al., A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions, J. Geophys. Res., 100(D5), 88738892, 1995.
  • Halarnkar, S., and S. Menon, “Gasping for life,”, India Today, pp. 3947, 15 December 1996.
  • Hanst, P. L., J. W. Spence, and E. O. Edney, Carbon monoxide production in photooxidation of organic molecules in the air, Atmos. Environ., 14(9), 10771088, 1980.
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 1995: The Science Climate Change, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 1996.
  • International Road Federation (IRF), World Road Statistics 2000: Data 1994–1998, Geneva, 2000.
  • Jacobson, M. Z., Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols, Nature, 409, 672695, 2001.
  • Jayaraman, A., D. Lubin, S. Ramachandran, V. Ramanathan, E. Woodbridge, W. D. Collins, and K. S. Zalpuri, Direct observations of aerosol radiative forcing over the tropical Indian Ocean during the January–February, 1996 pre-INDOEX cruise, J. Geophys. Res., 103(D12), 13,82713,836, 1998.
  • Jennings, S. G., T. G. Spain, B. G. Doddridge, H. Maring, B. P. Kelly, and A. D. A. Hansen, Concurrent measurements of black carbon aerosol and carbon monoxide at Mace Head, J. Geophys. Res., 101(14), 19,44719,454, 1996.
  • Khemani, L. T., G. A. Momin, P. S. P. Rao, R. Vijayakumar, and P. D. Safai, Study of surface ozone behavior at urban and forested sites in India, Atmos. Environ., 29(16), 20212024, 1995.
  • Lal, S., and M. G. Lawrence, Elevated mixing ratios of surface ozone over the Arabian Sea, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(8), 14871490, 2001.
  • Lal, S., M. Naja, and A. Jayaraman, Ozone in the marine boundary layer over the tropical Indian Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 103(15), 18,90718,917, 1998.
  • Lal, S., M. Naja, and B. H. Subbaraya, Seasonal variations in surface ozone and its precursors over an urban site in India, Atmos. Environ., 34(17), 27132724, 2000.
  • Lelieveld, J., et al., The Indian Ocean Experiment: Widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia, Science, 291, 10311036, 2001.
  • Liousse, C., J. E. Penner, C. Chuang, J. J. Walton, H. Eddleman, and H. Cachier, A global three-dimensional model study of carbonaceous aerosols, J. Geophys. Res., 101(D14), 19,41119,432, 1996.
  • Lobert, J. M., and J. M. Harris, Trace gases and air mass origin at Kaashidhoo, Indian Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JD000231, in press, 2002.
  • Lu, Y., Fueling One Billion: An Insider's Story of Chinese Energy Policy Development, Washington Institute Press, Washington, D. C., 1993.
  • Mahapatra, A. K., and C. P. Mitchell, Biofuel consumption, deforestation, and farm level tree growing in rural India, Biomass Bioenergy, 17, 291303, 1999.
  • Mayol-Bracero, O. L., R. Gabreil, M. O. Andreae, T. W. Kirchstetter, T. Novakov, and D. G. Streets, Carbonaceous aerosols over the Indian Ocean during INDOEX: Chemical characterization, optical properties and probable sources, J. Geophys. Res., 10.1029/2000JD000039, in press, 2002.
  • Mitra, A. P., INDOEX (India): Introductory note, Curr. Sci., 76(7), 886889, 1999.
  • Ministry of Surface Transport (MST), Pocket Book on Transport Statistics in India, New Delhi, 1993.
  • Muhlbaier, J. L., A characterization of emissions from wood-burning fireplaces, in Residential Solid Fuels: Environmental Impacts and Solutions, edited by J. A. Cooper, and D. Malek, pp. 164187, Oregon Graduate Center, Beaverton, Oreg., 1982.
  • Muhle, J., A. Zahn, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, V. Gros, and P. J. Crutzen, Air mass classification during the INDOEX R/V Ron Brown cruise using measurements of nonmethane hydrocarbons, CH4, CO2, 14CO, and δ18O(CO), J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JD000730, in press, 2002.
  • Naja, M., and S. Lal, Changes in surface ozone amount and its diurnal and seasonal patterns, from 1954–55 to 1991–93, measured at Ahmedabad (23 N), India, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23(1), 8184, 1996.
  • Naja, M., S. Lal, S. Venkataramani, K. S. Modh, and D. Chand, Variabilities in O3, NO, CO, and CH4 over the Indian Ocean during winter, Curr. Sci., 76(7), 931937, 1999.
  • National Research Council (NRC), Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Climate Change, 161 pp., National Academy Press, Washington, D. C., 1996.
  • Neusuess, C., T. Gnauk, A. Plewka, H. Herrmann, and P. K. Quinn, Carbonaceous aerosol over the Indian Ocean: OC/EC fractions and selected specifications from size-segregated onboard samples, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JD000327, in press, 2002.
  • Novakov, T., M. O. Andreae, R. Gabriel, T. W. Kirchstetter, and V. Ramanathan, Origin of carbonaceous aerosols over the tropical Indian Ocean: Biomass burning or fossil fuels? Geophys. Res. Lett., 27(24), 40614064, 2000.
  • Nuti, M. P., Emissions From Two-Stroke Engines, 283 pp., Soc. Automotive Engin. Inc., Warrendale, Pa., 1998.
  • Olivier, J. G. J., A. F. Bouwman, C. W. M. Vandermaas, and J. J. M. Berdowski, Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), Environ. Monit. Assess., 31(1–2), 93106, 1994.
  • Padhy, P. K., and C. K. Varshney, Total non-methane volatile organic compounds (TNMVOC) in the atmosphere of Delhi, Atmos. Environ., 34(4), 577584, 2000.
  • Pandey, J., and M. Agrawal, Ozone—concentration variabilities in a seasonally dry tropical climate, Environ. Int., 18(5), 515520, 1992.
  • Pandey, J., M. Agrawal, N. Khanam, D. Narayan, and D. N. Rao, Air pollutant concentrations in Varanasi, India, Atmos. Environ., 26(1), 9198, 1992.
  • Park, R. J., G. L. Stenchikov, K. E. Pickering, R. R. Dickerson, D. J. Allen, and S. Kondragunta, Regional air pollution and its radiative forcing: Studies with a single-column chemical and radiative transport model, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D22), 10.1029/2001JD001182, 2001.
  • Patra, D., and A. K. Mishra, Effect of sample geometry on synchronous fluorimetric analysis of petrol, diesel, kerosene, and their mixtures at higher concentrations, Analyst, 125, 13831386, 2000.
  • Patschull, J., and P. Roth, Measurement and reduction of particles emitted from a two-stroke engine, J. Aerosol Sci., 26(6), 979987, 1995.
  • Penner, J. E., H. Eddleman, and T. Novakov, Towards the development of a global inventory for black carbon emissions, Atmos. Environ., 27A(8), 12771295, 1993.
  • Priest, M. W., D. J. Williams, and H. A. Bridgman, Emissions from in-use lawn-mowers in Australia, Atmos. Environ., 34(4), 657664, 2000.
  • Quinn, P. K., D. J. Coffman, T. S. Bates, T. L. Bates, J. E. Miller, J. E. Johnson, E. J. Welton, C. Neusuess, M. Miller, and P. J. Sheridan, Aerosol optical properties during INDOEX 1999: Means, variability, and controlling factors, J. Geophys. Res., 107, DOI 10.1029/2000JD000037, in press, 2002.
  • Ramanathan, V., et al., The Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze, J. Geophys. Res., 106(22), 28,36928,370, 2001.
  • Raes, F., R. Van Dingenen, E. Vignati, J. Wilson, J.-P. Putaud, J. H. Seinfeld, and P. Adams, Formation and cycling of aerosols in the global troposphere, Atmos. Environ., 34, 42154240, 2000.
  • Reddy, M. S., and C. Venkataraman, Atmospheric optical and radiative effects of anthropogenic aerosol constituents from India, Atmos. Environ., 34(26), 45114523, 2000.
  • Rhoads, K. P., P. Kelley, R. R. Dickerson, T. Carsey, M. Farmer, S. J. Oltmans, D. Savoie, and J. M. Prospero, The composition of the troposphere over the Indian Ocean during the Monsoonal transition, J. Geophys. Res., 102(15), 18,98118,995, 1997.
  • Sarkar, A. K., J. M. Parashar, D. C. Mitra, U. C. Kulshrestha, and H. Cachier, Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols at urban and remote marine sites, Curr. Sci., 80, 176179, 2001.
  • Satheesh, S. K., V. Ramanathan, X. Li-Jones, J. M. Lobert, I. A. Podgorny, J. M. Prospero, B. N. Holben, and N. G. Loeb, A model for the natural and anthropogenic aerosols over the tropical Indian Ocean derived from INDOEX data, J. Geophys. Res., 104(22), 27,42127,440, 1999.
  • Shende, R. R., K. Jayaraman, C. R. Sreedharan, and V. S. Tiwari, Broad features of surface ozone variations over Indian region, Proc. Quad. Ozone Symp. NASA Conf. Publ. 3266, pp. 2432, 1992.
  • Singh, A., S. M. Sarin, P. Shanmugam, N. Sharma, A. K. Attri, and V. K. Jain, Ozone distribution in the urban environment of Delhi during winter months, Atmos. Environ., 31(20), 34213427, 1997.
  • Smith, K. R., Air pollution: Assessing total exposure in developing countries, Environment, 30(10), 1620, 2835, 1988.
  • Smith, K. R., R. Uma, V. V. N. Kishore, J. Zhang, V. Joshi, and M. A. K. Khalil, Greenhouse implications of household stoves: An analysis for India, Annu. Rev. Energy Environ., 25, 741763, 2000.
  • Stehr, J. W., W. P. Ball, R. R. Dickerson, B. G. Doddridge, C. A. Piety, and J. Johnson, Latitudinal gradients in O3 and CO during INDOEX 1999, J. Geophys. Res., 107, DOI 10.1029/2001JD000446, in press, 2002.
  • Streets, D. G., and N. Y. Tsai, Emissions Data to Support NASA TRACE-P Experiment, 2001.
  • Streets, D. G., and S. T. Waldhoff, Biofuel use in Asia and acidifying emissions, Energy, 23, 10291042, 1998.
  • Streets, D. G., and S. T. Waldhoff, Greenhouse-gas emissions from biofuel combustion in Asia, Energy, 24, 841855, 1999.
  • Streets, D. G., and S. T. Waldhoff, Present and future emissions of air pollutants in China: SO2, NOx, and CO, Atmos. Environ., 34(3), 363374, 2000.
  • Streets, D. G., S. K. Guttikunda, and G. R. Carmichael, The growing contribution of sulfur emissions from ships in Asian waters, 1988–1995, Atmos. Environ., 34(26), 44254439, 2000.
  • Streets, D. G., S. Gupta, S. T. Waldhoff, M. Q. Wang, T. C. Bond, and Y. Bo, Black carbon emissions in China, Atmos. Environ., 35(25), 42814296, 2001.
  • Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI), Potential for use of renewable sources of energy in Asia and their cost effectiveness in air pollution abatement, Final Rep. on Work Package 1, Darbari, New Delhi, Dec. 1999.
  • Tsai, J. H., Y. C. Hsu, H. C. Weng, W. Y. Lin, and F. T. Jeng, Air pollutant emissions factors from new and in-use motorcycles, Atmos. Environ., 34(28), 46544747, 2000.
  • Turn, S. Q., B. M. Jenkins, J. C. Chow, L. C. Pitchett, D. Campbell, T. Cahill, and S. A. Whalen, Elemental characterization of particulate matter emitted from biomass burning: Wind tunnel derived source profiles for herbaceous and wood fuels, J. Geophys. Res., 102(3), 36833699, 1997.
  • United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), Environmental Impacts of Trade Liberalization and Policies for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources: A Case Study on India's Automobile Sector, 177 pp., UNEP/99/2, New York, 1999.
  • Varshney, C. K., and M. Aggarwal, Ozone pollution in the urban atmosphere of Delhi, Atmos. Environ., 26B(3), 291294, 1992.
  • Weaver, C. S., and L.-M. Chan, Bangkok Particulate Study Task 4: Vehicle emissions testing, 41 pp., Final Rep. to the Dept. Pol. Cont., Royal Thai Ministry of Sci., Technol. and the Environ., and the World Bank, Sacramento, Calif., 1996.
  • Wolff, G. T., M. S. Ruthkosky, D. P. Stroup, P. E. Korsog, M. A. Ferman, G. T. Wendel, and D. H. Stedman, Measurements of SOx, NOx, and aerosol species on Bermuda, Atmos. Environ., 20, 12291239, 1986.
  • World Health Organization, United Nations Environmental Program (WHO/UNEP), Urban Air Pollution in Megacities of the World, Blackwell, Mallden, Mass., ISBN 0-631-18404-X, 1992.
  • Zhang, J., K. R. Smith, R. Uma, Y. Ma, V. V. N. Kishore, K. Lata, M. A. K. Khalil, R. A. Rasmussen, and S. A. Thorneloe, CO from cookstoves in developing countries, 1, Emission factors, Chemosphere: Global Change Sci., 1(1–3), 353366, 1999.