SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Asnani, G. C., Tropical Meteorology, Asnani-Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, 1993.
  • Baray, J. L., G. Ancellet, F. G. Taupin, M. Bessafi, S. Baldy, and P. Keckhut, Subtropical tropopause break as a possible stratospheric source of ozone in the tropical troposphere, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 60, 2736, 1998.
  • Baray, J. L., G. Ancellet, T. Randriambelo, and S. Baldy, Tropical cyclone Marlene and stratosphere-troposphere exchange, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 13,95313,970, 1999.
  • Crutzen, P. J., and M. O. Andreae, Biomass burning in the tropics: Impact on atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles, Science, 250, 16691678, 1990.
  • de Gouw, J. G., et al., Overview of the measurements onboard the Citation aircraft during the Intensive Field Phase of INDOEX, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D22), 28,453, 2001.
  • de Laat, A. T. J., M. Zachariasse, G. J. Roelofs, P. van Velthoven, R. R. Dickerson, K. P. Rhoads, S. J. Oltmans, and J. Lelieveld, Tropospheric O3 distribution over the Indian Ocean during spring 1995 evaluated with a chemistry climate model, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 13,88113,893, 1999.
  • de Reus, M., et al., Vertical and horizontal distributions of the aerosol number concentration and size distribution over the northern Indian Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 106(22), 10.1029/2001JD900017, 2001.
  • Diab, R. D., et al., Vertical ozone distribution over southern Africa and adjacent oceans during SAFARI-92, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 23,82323,833, 1996.
  • Dickerson, R. R., K. P. Rhoads, T. P. Carsey, S. J. Oltmans, J. P. Burrows, and P. J. Crutzen, Ozone in the remote marine boundary layer: A possible role for halogens, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 21,38521,395, 1999.
  • Fishman, J., J. M. Hoell, R. D. Bendura, R. J. McNeil, and V. Kirchhoff, NASA GTE TRACE A experiment (September October 1992): Overview, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 23,86523,879, 1996.
  • Folkins, I., M. Loewenstein, J. Podolske, S. Oltmans, and M. Profitt, A barrier to vertical mixing at 14 km in the tropics: Evidence from ozone sondes and aircraft measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 22,09522,102, 1999.
  • Goldammer, J. G., Fire in the tropical biota, Ecol. Stud., 84, 440462, 1990.
  • Gouget, H., J.-P. Cammas, A. Marenco, R. Rosset, and I. Jonquières, Ozone peaks associated with a subtropical tropopause fold and with trade wind inversion: A case study from the airborne campaign TROPOZ 2 over the Caribbean in winter, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 25,97925,993, 1996.
  • Graedel, T., and P. J. Crutzen,Atmospheric Change, An Earth System Perspective, W. H. Freeman, New York, 1993.
  • Gregory, G. L., C. H. Hudgins, and R. A. Edahl, Laboratory evaluation of an airborne ozone instrument that compensates for altitude/sensitivity effects, Environ. Sci. Technol., 17, 100103, 1983.
  • Gros, V., B. Bonsang, D. Martin, P. C. Novelli, and V. Kazan, Carbon monoxide short term measurements at Amsterdam Island: Estimations of biomass burning emission rates. Chemosphere, 1, 163172, 1999.
  • Holton, J. R., P. H. Haynes, M. E. McIntyre, A. R. Douglass, R. B. Rood, and L. Pfister, Stratosphere-troposphere exchange, Rev. Geophys., 33, 403439, 1995.
  • Iyengar, G. R., V. S. Prasad, and K. J. Ramesh, Circulation characteristic associate with Inter Tropical Convergence Zone during northern winter, Curr. Sci., 76, 903906, 1999.
  • Johnson, J. E., R. H. Gammon, J. Larsen, T. S. Bates, S. J. Oltmans, and J. C. Farmer, Ozone in the marine boundary layer over the Pacific and Indian Oceans: Latitudinal gradients and diurnal cycles, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 11,84711,586, 1990.
  • Jonquières, I., and A. Marenco, Redistribution by deep convection and long range transport of CO and CH4 emissions from the Amazon basin, as observed by the airborne campaign TROPOZ 2 during the wet season, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 19,07519,091, 1998.
  • Jonquières, I., A. Marenco, A. Maalej, and F. Rohrer, Study of ozone formation and transatlantic transport from biomass burning emissions over West Africa during the airborne Tropospheric Ozone Campaigns TROPOZ 1 and TROPOZ 2, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 19,05919,073, 1998.
  • Khalil, M. A. K., and R. A. Rasmussen, Global decrease in atmospheric carbon monoxide concentration, Nature, 370, 639641, 1994.
  • Lal, S., M. Naja, and A. Jayaraman, Ozone in the marine boundary layer over the tropical Indian Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 18,90718,917, 1998.
  • Lelieveld, J., and F. J. Dentener, What controls tropospheric ozone? J. Geophys. Res., 105, 35313551, 2000.
  • Lelieveld, J., A. Bregman, H. A. Scheeren, J. Ström, K. Carslaw, H. Fischer, P. C. Siegmund, and F. Arnold, Chlorine activation and ozone destruction in the northern lowermost stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 82018214, 1999.
  • Lelieveld, J., et al., Large impact of southeast Asian air pollution: Results from the Indian Ocean Experiment, Science, 291(5506), 1031, 2001.
  • Mandal, T. K., D. Kley, H. G. J. Smit, S. K. Srivastava, S. K. Peschin, and A. P. Mitra, Vertical distribution of ozone over the Indian Ocean (15N–20S) during first field phase INDOEX 1998, Curr. Sci., 76, 939943, 1999.
  • Matsueda, H., H. Y. Inoue, and M. Ishii, Large injection of carbon monoxide into the upper troposphere due to intense biomass burning in 1997, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 26,86726,879, 1999.
  • Matsueda, H., H. Y. Inoue, Y. Sawa, and Y. Tsutsumi, Carbon monoxide in the upper troposphere over the western Pacific between 1993 and 1996, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 19,09319,110, 1998.
  • McGregor, G. R., and S. Nieuwolt, Tropical Climatology, John Wiley, New York, 1998.
  • Mitra, A. P., INDOEX (India): Introductory note, Curr. Sci., 76, 886889, 1999.
  • Moorthy, K. K., A. Saha, K. Niranjan, and P. S. Pillai, Optical properties of atmospheric aerosols over the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean: North-south contrast across the ITCZ, Curr. Sci., 76, 957960, 1999.
  • Murgatroyd, R. J., Ozone and water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, in Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Radioactivity, edited by W. Bleeker, pp. 6894, World Meteorol. Org., Geneva, 1965.
  • Naja, M., S. Lal, S. Venkataramani, K. S. Modh, and D. Chand, Variabilities in O3, NO, CO and CH4 over the Indian Ocean during winter. Curr. Sci., 76, 931937, 1999.
  • Nakazawa, T., S. Miyashita, S. Aoki, and M. Tanaka, Temporal and spatial variations of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric carbon dioxide, Tellus, Ser. B., 106117, 1991.
  • Olivier, J. G. J., A. F. Bouwman, C. W. M. V. D. Maas, J. J. M. Berdowski, C. Veldt, J. P. J. Bloos, A. J. H. Visschedijk, P. Y. J. Zanderveld, and J. L. Haverlag, Description of EDGAR, Version 2, Natl. Inst. of Public Health and the Environ., Bilthoven, Netherlands, 1996.
  • Pak, B. C., R. L. Langenfelds, R. J. Francey, L. P. Steele, and I. Simmonds, A climatology of trace gases from the Cape Grim overflights 1992–1995, in Baseline Atmospheric Program Australia 1994–5, edited by A. L. D. R. Francey, and N. Derek, Bur. of Meteorol., Melbourne, Australia, 1996.
  • Parrish, D. D., M. Trainer, J. S. Holloway, J. E. Yee, M. S. Warshawsky, F. C. Fehsenfeld, G. L. Forbes, and J. L. Moody, Relationships between ozone and carbon monoxide at surface sites In the North Atlantic region, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 13,35713,376, 1998.
  • Pougatchev, N. S., G. W. Sachse, H. E. Fuelberg, C. P. Rinsland, R. B. Chatfield, V. S. Conners, N. B. Jones, J. Notholt, P. C. Novelli, and H. G. Reichle, Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics carbon monoxide measurements in historical context, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 26,19526,207, 1999.
  • Randriambelo, T., J. L. Baray, S. Baldy, P. Bremaud, and S. Cautenet, A case study of extreme tropospheric ozone contamination in the tropics using in-situ, satellite and meteorological data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 12871290, 1999.
  • Rhoads, K. P., P. Kelley, R. R. Dickerson, T. P. Carsey, M. Farmer, D. L. Savoie, and J. M. Prospero, Composition of the troposphere over the Indian Ocean during the monsoonal transition, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 18,98118,995, 1997.
  • Riehl, H., Climate and Weather in the Tropics, Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1979.
  • Roelofs, G. J., and J. Lelieveld, Model study of the influence of cross-tropopause O3 transports on tropospheric O3 levels, Tellus, Ser. B, 49, 3855, 1997.
  • Roths, J., and G. W. Harris, The tropospheric distribution of carbon monoxide as observed during the TROPOZ 2 experiment, J. Atmos. Chem., 24, 157188, 1996.
  • Scheele, M. P., P. C. Siegmund, and P. F. J. V. Velthoven, Sensitivity of trajectories to data resolution and its dependence on the starting point: In or outside a tropopause fold, Meteorol. Appl., 3, 267273, 1996.
  • Smit, H. G. J., D. Kley, S. Mckeen, A. Voltz, and S. Gilge, Ozone in the Atmosphere, edited by R. D. Bojkov, and P. Fabian, pp. 419422, A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1989.
  • Suhre, S., J.-P. Cammas, P. Nédelec, R. Rosset, A. Marenco, and H. G. J. Smit, Ozone-rich transients in the upper equatorial Atlantic troposphere, Nature, 388, 661663, 1997.
  • Taupin, F. G., M. Bessafi, S. Baldy, and P. J. Bremaud, Tropospheric ozone above the southwestern Indian Ocean is strongly linked to dynamical conditions prevailing in the tropics, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 80578066, 1999.
  • Thompson, A. M., B. G. Doddridge, J. C. Witte, R. D. Hudson, W. T. Luke, J. E. Johnston, B. J. Johnston, S. J. Oltmans, and R. Weller, A tropical Atlantic paradox: Shipboard and satellite views of a tropospheric ozone maximum and wave-one in January–February 1999, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 33173320, 2000.
  • Tuck, A. F., et al., The Brewer-Doson circulation in the light of high altitude in-situ aircraft observations, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 123, 169, 1997.
  • Verver, G. H. L., D. R. Sikka, J. M. Lobert, G. Stossmeister, and M. Zachariasse, Overview of the meteorological conditions and atmospheric transport processes during the INDOEX IFP 1999, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 10.1029/2001JD900203, in press, 2002.
  • Waibel, A. E., H. Fischer, F. Wienhold, P. C. Siegmund, B. Lee, J. Ström, J. Lelieveld, and P. J. Crutzen, Highly elevated carbon monoxide concentrations in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere at northern midlatitudes during the STREAM 2 summer campaign in 1994, Chemosphere, 1, 233248, 1999.
  • Weller, R., R. Lilischkis, O. Schrems, R. Neuber, and S. Wessel, Vertical ozone distribution in the marine atmosphere over the central Atlantic Ocean (56°S–50°N), J. Geophys. Res., 101, 13871399, 1996.
  • Wienhold, F. G., et al., TRISTAR—A tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research, Appl. Phys., B, 411417, 1998.
  • Williams, J., et al., Influence of the tropical rain forest on atmospheric CO and CO2 as measured by aircraft over Surinam, South America, Chemosphere, 3, 157170, 2001.
  • World Bank Atlas, Communications Development Incorporated, Washington D.C., 1999.
  • Zachariasse, M., P. F. J. Velthoven, H. G. J. Smit, J. Lelieveld, T. K. Mandal, and H. Kelder, Influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange on tropospheric ozone over the tropical Indian Ocean during the winter monsoon, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 15,40315,416, 2000.
  • Zahn, A., et al., Identification of extratropical two-way troposphere-stratosphere mixing based on CARIBIC measurements of O3, CO and ultrafine particles, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 15271535, 2000.