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Sixty participants gathered at a workshop last 5–7 August in Lüneburg, Germany just prior to the 27th (Hamburg) International Cosmic Ray Conference to discuss the relative importance of flares and shocks as sources of solar energetic particle (SEP) events. In the current two-class paradigm for SEP events [Reames, 1999], the flare process accounts for acceleration in “impulsive” events, while Coronal Mass Ejection (CME)-driven coronal and interplanetary shock acceleration dominates “gradual” events. (For more on SEP terminology see Cliver and Cane [2002].)