We live at a time when the surface of the Earth, as represented by its soils, vegetation, streams, and topography, is being radically transformed by human activity. The change is global and rapid (occurring on human time scales). Periods of change provide opportunity for science, and the present time is no exception for the opportunities it offers to geomorphologists. Geomorphology has traditionally had a strong focus on the past as it attempts to explain and help us understand the nature of landforms and Earth surface processes. The landforms and processes that have been the main subject of geomorphology are the classical ones associated with rivers, dunes, glacial moraines, and other natural landscape features. This is still largely true today: modern geomorphology textbooks often barely touch upon anthropic effects.