SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Anderson, P. N., and R. A. Hites, OH radical reactions: The major removal pathway for polychlorinated biphenyls from the atmosphere, Environ. Sci. Technol., 30, 17561763, 1996a.
  • Anderson, P. N., and R. A. Hites, System to measure relative rate constants of semivolatile organic compounds with hydroxyl radicals, Environ. Sci. Technol., 30, 301306, 1996b.
  • Atkinson, R., Estimation of OH radical reaction rate constants and atmospheric lifetimes for polychlorobiphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, Environ. Sci. Technol., 21, 305307, 1987.
  • Atkinson, R., and S. M. Aschmann, Rate constants for the gas-phase reaction of hydroxyl radicals with biphenyl and the monochlorobiphenyls at 295 +/−1 K, Environ. Sci. Technol., 19, 462464, 1985.
  • Axelman, J., and D. Broman, Inventories and fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls from a contaminated industrial site, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 18, 18711881, 1999.
  • Axelman, J., and D. Broman, Budget calculations for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Northern Hemisphere—A single-box approach, Tellus, Ser. B, 53, 235259, 2001.
  • Axelman, J., C. Bandh, D. Broman, R. Carman, P. Jonsson, H. Larsson, H. Linder, C. Näf, and H. Pettersen, Time-trend analysis of PAH and PCB sediment fluxes in the northern Baltic proper using different dating methods, Mar. Freshwater Res., 46, 137144, 1995.
  • Berdowski, J. J. M., J. Baas, J. P. J. Bloos, A. J. H. Visschedijk, P. Y. J. Zandveld, The European atmospheric emission inventory of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, Rep. 104 02 672/03, TNO Inst. of Environ. Sci., Energy Res. and Process Innov., Apeldoorn, Netherlands, 1997.
  • Bidleman, T. F., Atmospheric processes, Environ. Sci. Technol., 22, 361367, 1988.
  • Bignert, A., M. Olsson, W. Persson, S. Jensen, S. Zakrisson, and K. Litzén, Temporal trends of organochlorines in northern Europe 1967–1995: Relation to global fractionation, leakage, from sediments and international measures, Environ. Pollut., 99, 177198, 1998.
  • Bletchly, J. D., Polychlorinated biphenyls—Production, current use and possible rates of future disposal in OECD member countries, in Proceedings of PCB Seminar, The Hague, 28–30 September 1983, edited by M. C. Barros, H. Könemann, R. Visser, pp. 343365, Min. of the Environ., The Hague, Netherlands, 1986.
  • Blumer, M., Organic compounds in nature: Limits of our knowledge, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 14, 507580, 1975.
  • Breivik, K., A. Sweetman, J. M. Pacyna, and K. C. Jones, Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected PCB congeners—A mass balance approach, 1, Global production and consumption, Sci. Total Environ., 290, 181198, 2002a.
  • Breivik, K., A. Sweetman, J. M. Pacyna, and K. C. Jones, Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected PCB congeners—A mass balance approach, 2, Emissions, Sci. Total Environ., 290, 199224, 2002b.
  • Brorström-Lundén, E., Atmospheric deposition of persistent organic compounds to the sea surface, J. Sea Res., 35, 8190, 1996.
  • Brorström-Lundén, E., A. Lindskog, and J. Mowrer, Concentrations and fluxes of organic compounds in the atmosphere of the Swedish west coast, Atmos. Environ., 28, 36053615, 1994.
  • Brubaker, W. W.Jr., and R. A. Hites, Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans: Gas-phase hydroxyl reactions and related atmospheric removal, Environ. Sci. Technol., 31, 18051810, 1997.
  • Brubaker, W. W.Jr., and R. A. Hites, Gas-phase oxidation products of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls, Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 39133918, 1998a.
  • Brubaker, W. W.Jr., and R. A. Hites, OH reaction kinetics of gas-phase a- and g-hexachlorocyclohexane and hexachlorobenzene, Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 766769, 1998b.
  • Brunner, S., E. Hornung, H. Santi, E. Wolff, O. G. Piringer, J. Altschuh, and R. Brüggemann, Henry's law constants for polychlorinated biphenyls: Experimental determination and structure-property relationships, Environ. Sci. Technol., 24, 17511754, 1990.
  • Buesseler, K. O., The decoupling of production and particulate export in the surface ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 12, 297310, 1998.
  • Capel, P. D., C. Leuenberger, and W. Giger, Hydrophobic organic-chemicals in urban fog, Atmos. Environ., 25, 13351346, 1991.
  • Cousins, I. T., B. Gevao, and K. C. Jones, Measuring and modelling the vertical distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds in soils, I, PCB and PAH soils core data, Chemosphere, 39, 25072518, 1999.
  • Duce, R. A., et al., The atmospheric input of trace species to the world ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 5, 193259, 1991.
  • Farrington, J. W., and J. Westall, Organic chemical pollutants in the oceans and groundwater: A review of fundamental chemical properties and biogeochemistry, in The Role of the Oceans as a Waste Disposal Option, edited by G. Kullenberg, pp. 361425, Riedel, Norwell, Mass., 1986.
  • Franz, T. P., and S. J. Eisenreich, Wet deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls to Green Bay, Lake Michigan, Chemosphere, 26, 17671788, 1993.
  • Garton, L. S., J. S. Bonner, A. N. Ernest, and R. L. Autenrieth, Fate and transport of PCBs at the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 15, 736745, 1996.
  • Glotfelty, D. E., J. N. Seiber, and L. A. Liljedahl, Pesticides in fog, Nature, 325, 602605, 1987.
  • Goss, K.-U., and R. P. Schwarzenbach, Gas/solid and gas/liquid partitioning of organic compounds: Critical evaluation of the interpretation of equilibrium constants, Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 20252032, 1998.
  • Gregor, D. J., A. J. Peters, C. Teixeira, N. Jones, and C. Spencer, The historical residue trend of PCBs in the Agassiz ice cap, Ellesmere Island, Canada, Sci. Total Environ., 160/161, 117126, 1995.
  • Gschwend, P. M., and R. P. Schwarzenbach, Physical chemistry of organic compounds in the marine environment, Mar. Chem., 39, 187207, 1992.
  • Gustafsson, Ö., and P. M. Gschwend, Hydrophobic organic compound partitioning from bulk water to the water/air interface, Atmos. Environ., 33, 163167, 1999.
  • Gustafsson, Ö., P. M. Gschwend, and K. O. Buesseler, Using 234Th disequilibria to estimate the vertical removal rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the surface ocean, Mar. Chem., 57, 1123, 1997a.
  • Gustafsson, Ö., P. M. Gschwend, and K. O. Buesseler, Settling removal rates of PCBs into the northwestern Atlantic derived from 238U-234Th disequilibria, Environ. Sci. Technol., 31, 35443550, 1997b.
  • Hamrud, M., Residence time and spatial variability for gases in the atmosphere, Tellus, Ser. B, 35, 295303, 1983.
  • Harrad, S. J., et al., Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the British environment: sinks, sources and temporal trends, Environ. Pollut., 85, 131146, 1994.
  • Hart, K. M., and J. F. Pankow, High-volume air sampler for particle and gas sampling, 2, Use of backup filters to correct for the adsorption of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the front filter, Environ. Sci. Technol., 28, 655661, 1994.
  • Hawker, D. W., and D. W. Connell, Octanol-water partition coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, Environ. Sci. Technol., 22, 382387, 1988.
  • Hedges, J. I., and R. G. Keil, Sedimentary organic-matter preservation—An assessment and speculative synthesis, Mar. Chem., 49, 81115, 1995.
  • Hippelein, M., and M. S. McLachlan, Soil/air partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds, 1, Method development and influence of physical-chemical properties, Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 310316, 1998.
  • Hornbuckle, K. C., J. D. Jeremiason, C. W. Sweet, and S. J. Eisenreich, Seasonal variations in air-water exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls in Lake Superior, Environ. Sci. Technol., 28, 14911501, 1994.
  • Ikalainen, A. J., and L. H. Hall, Project management plan for New Bedford Harbour, Massachusetts. EPA contract 68-01-7250, EPA work assign. 04-1L43, U. S. Environ. Prot. Agency, Narragansett, R. I., 1986.
  • Jobson, B. T., D. D. Parrish, P. Goldan, W. Kuster, F. C. Fehsenfeld, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, and H. J. Niki, Spatial and temporal variability of nonmethane hydrocarbon mixing ratios and their relation to photochemical lifetime, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 13,55713,567, 1998.
  • Junge, C. E., Residence time and variability of tropospheric trace gases, Tellus, 26, 477488, 1974.
  • Katami, T., A. Yasuhara, T. Okuda, and T. Shibamoto, Formation of PCDDs, PCDFs, coplanar PCBs from polyvinyl chloride during combustion in an incinerator, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 13201324, 2002.
  • Lawrence, M. G., and P. J. Crutzen, Influence of NOx emissions from ships on tropospheric photochemistry and climate, Nature, 402, 167170, 1999.
  • Lohmann, R., W. A. Ockenden, J. Shears, and K. C. Jones, Atmospheric distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), non-ortho biphenyls (PCBs) along a north-south transect, Environ. Sci. Technol., 35, 40464053, 2001.
  • Mackay, D., W. Y. Shiu, and R. P. Sutherland, Determination of air-water Henry's law constant for hydrophobic pollutants, Environ. Sci. Technol., 13, 333337, 1979.
  • Montzka, S. A., C. M. Spivakovsky, J. H. Butler, J. W. Elkins, L. T. Lock, and D. J. Mondeel, New observational constraints for atmospheric hydroxyl on global and hemisphere scales, Science, 288, 500503, 2000.
  • Muir, D. C. G., A. Omelchenko, N. P. Grift, D. A. Savoie, W. L. Lockhart, W. L. Wilkinson, and G. J. Brunskill, Spatial trends and historical deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls in Canadian midlatitude and Arctic lake sediments, Environ. Sci. Technol., 30, 36093617, 1996.
  • National Academy of Science (NAS), Polychlorinated biphenyls, report, Washington, D. C., 1979.
  • Oehme, M., J.-E. Haugen, and M. Schlabach, Seasonal changes and relations between levels of organochlorines in arctic ambient air: First results of an all-year-round monitoring program at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway, Environ. Sci. Technol., 30, 22942304, 1996.
  • Oliver, B. G., M. N. Charlton, and R. W. Durham, Distribution, redistribution, geochronology of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and other chlorinated hydrocarbons in the Lake Ontario sediments, Environ. Sci. Technol., 23, 200208, 1989.
  • Pankow, J. F., Review and comparative analysis of the theories on partitioning between the gas and aerosol particulate phases in the atmosphere, Atmos. Environ., 21, 22752283, 1987.
  • Pankow, J. F., Partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds to the air/water interface, Atmos. Environ., 31, 927929, 1997.
  • Panshin, S. Y., and R. A. Hites, Atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls at Bermuda, Environ. Sci. Technol., 28, 20012007, 1994a.
  • Panshin, S. Y., and R. A. Hites, Atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls at Bloomington, Indiana, Environ. Sci. Technol., 28, 20082013, 1994b.
  • Prinn, R. G., R. F. Weiss, B. R. Miller, J. Huang, F. N. Alyea, D. M. Cunnold, P. J. Fraser, D. E. Hartley, and P. G. Simmonds, Atmospheric trends and lifetime of CH3CCl3 and global OH concentrations, Science, 269, 187192, 1995.
  • Sakai, S.-I., K. Hayakawa, H. Takatsuki, and I. Kawakami, Dioxin-like PCBs release from waste incineration and their deposition flux, Environ. Sci. Technol., 35, 36013607, 2001.
  • Sanders, G., K. C. Jones, and J. Hamilton-Taylor, Historical inputs of polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorines to a dated lacustrine sediment core in rural England, Environ. Sci. Technol., 26, 18151821, 1992.
  • Sanders, G., K. C. Jones, and J. Hamilton-Taylor, PCB and PAH fluxes to a dated UK peat core, Environ. Pollut., 89, 1725, 1995.
  • Schulz, D. E., G. Petrick, and J. C. Duinker, Chlorinated biphenyls in North Atlantic surface and deep water, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 19, 526531, 1988.
  • Schulz-Bull, D. E., G. Petrick, R. Bruhn, and J. C. Duinker, Chlorobiphenyls (PCB) and PAHs in water masses of the northern North Atlantic, Mar. Chem., 61, 101114, 1998.
  • Seth, R., D. Mackay, and J. Muncke, Estimating the organic carbon partition coefficient and its variability for hydrophobic chemicals, Environ. Sci. Technol., 33, 23902394, 1999.
  • Simcik, M. F., I. Basu, C. W. Sweet, and R. A. Hites, Temperature dependence and temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the Great Lakes atmosphere, Environ. Sci. Technol., 33, 19911995, 1999.
  • Simonich, S. L., and R. A. Hites, Importance of vegetation in removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the atmosphere, Nature, 370, 4951, 1994.
  • Slinn, W. G. N., A simple model for Junge's relationship between concentration fluctuations and residence times for tropospheric trace gases, Tellus, Ser. B, 40, 229232, 1988.
  • Spivakovsky, C. M., et al., Three-dimensional climatological distribution of tropospheric OH: Update and evaluation, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 89318990, 2000.
  • Stumm, W., R. Schwarzenbach, and L. Sigg, From environmental analytical chemistry to ecotoxicology—A plea for more concepts and less monitoring and testing, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 22, 380389, 1983.
  • Wania, F., and D. Mackay, A global distribution model for persistent organic chemicals, Sci. Total Environ., 160/161, 211232, 1995.
  • Wania, F., and D. Mackay, Tracking the distribution of persistent organic pollutants, Environ. Sci. Technol., 30, 390A396A, 1996.