SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Albarède, F., A. Michard, J. F. Minster, and G. Michard, 87Sr/86Sr ratios in hydrothermal waters and deposits from East Pacific Rise at 21°N, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 55, 229236, 1981.
  • Allègre, C. J., and D. L. Turcotte, Implications of a two-component marble-cake mantle, Nature, 323, 123127, 1986.
  • Alt, J. C., E. Zuleger, and J. A. Erzinger, Mineralogy and stable isotopic composition of the hydrothermally altered lower sheeted dike complex, Hole 504B, Leg 140, Proc. Ocean Drill. Program, Sci. Results, 137/140, 155166, 1995.
  • Alt, J .C., et al., Hydrothermal alteration of a section of upper oceanic crust in the eastern equatorial Pacific: A synthesis of results from Site 504(DSDP Legs 69, 70, 83, and ODP Legs 111, 137, 140, and 148, Proc. Ocean Drill. Program Sci. Results, 148, 417434, 1996a.
  • Alt, J. C., D. A. H. Teagle, C. Laverne, D. A. Vanko, W. Bach, J. Honnorez, K. Becker, M. Ayadi, and P. A. Pezard, Ridge flank alteration of upper oceanic crust in the eastern Pacific: Synthesis of results for volcanic rocks of holes 504B and 896A, Proc. Ocean Drill. Program, Sci. Results, 148, 435450, 1996b.
  • Amossé, J., Determination of platinum-group elements and gold in geological matrices by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after separation with selenium and tellurium carriers, Geostand. Newslett., 22, 93102, 1998.
  • Anbar, A. D., R. A. Creaser, D. A. Papanastassiou, and G. J. Wasserburg, Rhenium in seawater: Confirmation of generally conservative behavior, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 56, 40994103, 1992.
  • Anbar, A. D., G. J. Wasserburg, D. A. Papanastassiou, and P. S. Andersson, Iridium in natural waters, Science, 273, 15241528, 1996.
  • Bach, W., J. Erzinger, J. C. Alt, and D. A. H. Teagle, Chemistry of the lower sheeted dike complex, Hole 504B (Leg 148): Influence of magmatic differentiation and hydrothermal alteration, Proc. Ocean Drill. Program Sci. Results, 148, 3955, 1996.
  • Bach, W., B. Peucker-Ehrenbrink, S. R. Hart, and J. S. Blusztajn, Geochemistry of hydrothermally altered oceanic crust: DSDP/ODP Hole 504B—Implications for seawater-crust exchange budgets and Sr- and Pb-isotopic evolution of the mantle, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 4(3), 8904, doi:10.1029/2002GC000419, 2003.
  • Barnes, S.-J., A. J. Naldrett, and M. P. Gorton, The origin of the fractionation of platinum-group elements in terrestrial magmas, Chem. Geol., 53, 303323, 1985.
  • Becker, H., Re-Os fractionation in ecolgites and blueschists and the implications for recycling of oceanic crust into the mantle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 177, 287300, 2000.
  • Berggren, W. A., D. V. Kent, C. C. Swisher III, and M.-P. Aubry, A revised Cenozoic geochronology and chronostratigraphy, SEMP Spec. Publ., 54, 129212, 1995.
  • Birck, J. L., M. Roy Barman, and F. Capmas, Re-Os isotopic measurements at the femtomole level in natural samples, Geostand. Newslett., 20(1), 1927, 1997.
  • Bloch, S., Some factors controlling the concentration of uranium in the world ocean, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., 44, 373377, 1980.
  • Blusztajn, J., S. R. Hart, G. Ravizza, and H. J. B. Dick, Platinum-group elements and Os isotopic characteristics of the lower oceanic crust, Chem. Geol., 168, 113122, 2000.
  • Borg, L. E., A. D. Brandon, M. A. Clynne, and R. J. Walker, Re-Os isotopic systematics of primitive lavas from the Lassen region of the Cascade arc, California, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 177, 301317, 2000.
  • Bowman, W. S., M. E. Leaver, and J. Salley, PTC-1a: Certification of a copper-nickel concentrate containing noble metals, CCRMP 99–1E, 8 pp., Can. Cert. Mater. Proj., Ottawa, Canada, 1999.
  • Brandon, A. D., R. A. Creaser, S. B. Shirey, and R. W. Carlson, Osmium recycling in subduction zones, Science, 272, 861864, 1996.
  • Brügmann, G., J. L. Birck, P. M. Herzig, and A. W. Hofmann, Os isotopic composition and Os and Re distribution in the active mound of the TAG hydrothermal system, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Proc. Ocean Drill. Program Sci. Results, 158, 91100, 1998.
  • Burton, K. W., A. Gannoun, J.-L. Birck, C. J. Allègre, P. Schiano, R. Clocchiatti, and O. Alard, The compatibility of rhenium and osmium in natural olivine and their behaviour during mantle melting and basalt genesis, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 198, 6376, 2002.
  • Cave, R. R., G. E. Ravizza, C. R. German, J. Thomson, and R. W. Nesbitt, Deposition of osmium and other platinum-group elements beneath the ultramafic-hosted Rainbow hydrothermal plume, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 210, 6579, 2003.
  • Chesley, J., J. Ruiz, K. Righter, L. Ferrari, and A. Gomez-Tuena, Source contamination versus assimilation: An example from the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Arc, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 195, 211221, 2002.
  • Colodner, D., J. Sachs, G. Ravizza, K. Turekian, J. Edmond, and E. Boyle, The geochemical cycle of rhenium: A reconnaissance, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 117, 205221, 1993.
  • Colodner, D., J. Edmond, and E. Boyle, Rhenium in the Black Sea: Comparison with molybdenum and uranium, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 131, 115, 1995.
  • Crocket, J. H., PGE in fresh basalt, hydrothermal alteration products, and volcanic incrustations of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 64, 17911807, 2000.
  • Crusius, J., S. Calvert, T. Pedersen, and D. Sage, Rhenium and molybdenum enrichments in sediments as indicators of oxic, suboxic and sulfidic conditions of deposition, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 145, 6578, 1996.
  • Distler, V. V., N. Pertsev, and V. A. Boronikhin, Sulfide petrology of basalts from Deep Sea Drilling Project Holes 504B and 505B, Initial Rep. Deep Sea Drill. Proj., 69, 607617, 1983.
  • Edmond, J. M., C. Measures, R. E. McDuff, L. Chan, R. Collier, B. Grand, L. I. Gordon, and J. Corliss, Ridge crest hydrothermal activity and the balance of the major and minor elements in the ocean, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 46, 118, 1979.
  • Enzweiler, J., P. J. Potts, and K. E. Jarvis, Determination of platinum, palladium, ruthenium and iridium in geological samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a sodium peroxide fusion and tellurium coprecipitation, Analyst, 120, 13911396, 1995.
  • Farago, M. E., P. Kavanagh, R. Blanks, J. Kelly, G. Kazantzis, I. Thornton, P. R. Simpson, J. M. Cook, S. Parry, and G. M. Hall, Platinum metal concentrations in urban road dust and soil in the United Kingdom, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 354, 660663, 1996.
  • Finnegan, D. L., T. L. Miller, and W. H. Zoller, Iridium and other trace-metal enrichments from Hawaiian volcanoes, Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., 247, 111116, 1990.
  • Fleet, M. E., and T.-W. Wu, Volatile transport of platinum-group elements in sulfide-chloride assemblages at 1000°C, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 57, 35193531, 1993.
  • Fleet, M. E., J. H. Crocket, and W. E. Stone, Sulfide liquid/silicate melt partition coefficients from platinum-group elements and gold, Mineral. Mag., 58, A, 276277, 1994.
  • Gannoun, A., L. E. Thomas, K. W. Burton, and P. Schiano, Open-system behaviour in mid-ocean ridge basalts (abstract), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 66, A260, 2002.
  • Govindaraju, K., Compilation of working values and sample description for 383 geostandards, Geostand. Newslett., 18, spec. issue, 1158, 1994.
  • Greenough, J. D., and B. J. Fryer, Distribution of gold, palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, and iridium in Leg 115 hotspot basalts: Implications for magmatic processes, Proc. Ocean Drill. Program Sci. Results, 115, 7184, 1990.
  • Haggas, S. L., T. S. Brewer, and P. K. Harvey, Architecture of the volcanic layer from the Costa Rica Rift, constraints from core-log integration, J. Geophys. Res., 107(B2), 2031, doi:10.1029/2001JB000147, 2002.
  • Hall, G. E. M., and J. C. Pelchat, Analysis of geological materials for gold, platinum and palladium at low ppb levels by fire assay-ICP mass spectrometry, Chem. Geol., 115, 6172, 1994.
  • Hart, S. R., K, Rb, Cs contents and K/Rb, K/Cs ratios of fresh and altered submarine basalts, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, 6, 225303, 1969.
  • Hart, S. R., and G. E. Ravizza, Os partitioning between phases in lherzolite and basalt, in Earth Processes: Reading the Isotopic Code, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 95, edited by A. Bashu, and S. R. Hart, pp. 123134, AGU, Washington, D.C., 1996.
  • Hart, S. R., and H. Staudigel, The control of alkalies and uranium in sea water by ocean crust alteration, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 58, 202212, 1982.
  • Hart, S. R., and H. Staudigel, Isotopic characterization and identification of recycled components, in Crust/Mantle Recycling at Convergent Zones, edited by S. R. Hart, and L. Gülen, pp. 1528, Kluwer Acad., Norwell, Mass., 1989.
  • Hartmann, G., PGE and Au in MORB glasses from depleted mantle melting and in alkali basalts from metasomatized mantle melting, Proceedings of the 30th International Geological Congress, vol. 15, edited by L. Zhaonai, pp. 3949, VSP, Zeist, Netherlands, 1997.
  • Hassler, D. R., B. Peucker-Ehrenbrink, and G. E. Ravizza, Rapid determination of Os isotopic composition by sparging OsO4 into a magnetic-sector ICP-MS, Chem. Geol., 166, 114, 2000.
  • Hauri, E. H., and S. R. Hart, Re-Os isotope systematics of HIMU and EMII oceanic island basalts from the south Pacific Ocean, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 144, 353371, 1993.
  • Hauri, E. H., and S. R. Hart, Rhenium abundances and systematics in oceanic basalts, Chem. Geol., 139, 185205, 1997.
  • Hertogen, J., M.-J. Janssens, and H. Palme, Trace elements in ocean ridge basalt glasses: Implications for fractionation during mantle evolution and petrogenesis, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 44, 21252143, 1980.
  • Hofmann, A. W., Chemical differentiation of the Earth: The relationship between mantle, continental crust, and oceanic crust, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 90, 297314, 1988.
  • Kelley, K. A., T. Plank, J. Ludden, and H. Staudigel, Composition of altered oceanic crust at ODP Sites 801 and 1149, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 4(6), 8910, doi:10.1029/2002GC000435, 2003.
  • Kepezhinskas, P., and M. J. Defant, Nonchondritic Pt/Pd ratios in arc mantle xenoliths: Evidence for platinum enrichment in depleted island-arc mantle sources, Geology, 29, 851854, 2001.
  • Kepezhinskas, P., M. J. Defant, and E. Widom, Abundance and distribution of PGE and AU in the island-arc mantle: Implications for sub-arc metasomatism, Lithos, 60, 113128, 2002.
  • Leblanc, M., Platinum-group elements and gold in ophiolitic complexes: Distribution and fractionation from mantle to ocean floor, in Ophiolite Genesis and Evolution of the Oceanic Lithosphere, edited by T. Peters et al., pp. 231260, Minist. of Petrol. and Miner., Sultanate of Oman, 1991.
  • Luguet, A., O. Alard, J. P. Lorand, N. J. Pearson, C. Ryan, and S. Y. O'Reilly, Laser-ablation microprobe (LAM)-ICPMS unravels the highly siderophile element geochemistry of the oceanic mantle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 189, 285294, 2001.
  • Martin, C. E., Os isotopic characteristics of mantle derived rocks, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 55, 14211434, 1991.
  • McDonough, W. F., and S.-S. Sun, The composition of the Earth, Chem. Geol., 120, 223253, 1995.
  • McInnes, B. I., J. S. McBride, N. J. Evans, D. D. Lambert, and A. S. Andrew, Osmium isotope constraints on ore metal recycling in subduction zones, Science, 286, 512516, 1999.
  • Meisel, T., R. J. Walker, and J. W. Morgan, The osmium isotopic composition of the Earth's primitive upper mantle, Nature, 383, 517520, 1996.
  • Meisel, T., R. J. Walker, A. J. Irving, and J.-P. Lorand, Osmium isotopic compositions of mantle xenoliths: A global perspective, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 65, 13111323, 2001a.
  • Meisel, T., J. Moser, N. Fellner, W. Wegschneider, and R. Schoenberg, Simplified method for the determination of Ru, Pd, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt in chromitites and other geological materials by isotope dilution ICP-MS and acid digestion, Analyst, 126, 322328, 2001b.
  • Meisel, T., J. Moser, and W. Wegschneider, Recognizing heterogenous distribution of platinum group elements (PGE) in geologic materials by means of the Re-Os isotope system, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 370, 566572, 2001c.
  • Michard, A., and F. Albarède, Hydrothermal uranium uptake at ridge crests, Nature, 317, 244246, 1985.
  • Momme, P., N. Oskarsson, C. Tegner, K. Brooks, and R. R. Keayes, Platinum-group elements in basalts derived from the Icelandic mantle-plume-past and present, Eos Trans. AGU, 82(47), Fall Meet. Suppl., abstract V22A-1003, 2001.
  • Morcelli, C. P. R., and A. M. G. Figueiredo, Determination of iridium at sub ng g−1 levels in geological materials by RNAA, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 244, 619621, 2000.
  • Morford, J. L., and S. Emerson, The geochemistry of redox sensitive trace metals in sediments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63, 17351750, 1999.
  • Morgan, J. W., and J. F. Lovering, Rhenium and osmium abundances in some igneous and metamorphic rocks, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 3, 219224, 1967.
  • Müller, M., and K. G. Heumann, Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry in connection with a chromatographic separation for ultra trace determinations of platinum group elements (Pt, Pd, Ru, Ir) in environmental samples, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 368, 109115, 2000.
  • Nameroff, T. J., L. S. Balistrieri, and J. W. Murray, Suboxic trace metal geochemistry in the eastern tropical North Pacific, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 66, 11391158, 2002.
  • Pattou, L., J. P. Lorand, and M. Gros, Non-chondritic platinum-group element ratios in the Earth's mantle, Nature, 379, 712715, 1996.
  • Paukert, T., and I. Rubeska, Effect of fusion charge composition on the determination of platinum group elements using collection into a minimized nickel sulphide button, Anal. Chim. Acta, 278, 125136, 1993.
  • Pedersen, R. B., and H. Furnes, Nd- and Pb-isotopic variations through the upper oceanic crust in DSDP/ODP Hole 504B, Costa Rica Rift, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 189, 221235, 2001.
  • Pegram, W. J., and C.-J. Allègre, Osmium isotopic compositions from oceanic basalts, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 111, 5968, 1992.
  • Piepgras, D. J., and G. J. Wasserburg, Strontium and neodymium isotopes in hot springs on the East Pacific Rise and Guaymas Basin, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 72, 341356, 1985.
  • Plessen, H.-G., and J. Erzinger, Determination of the platinum-group elements and gold in twenty rock reference materials by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after pre-concentration by nickel sulfide fire assay, Geostand. Newslett., 22, 187194, 1998.
  • Ravizza, G., and D. Pyle, PGE and Os isotopic analyses of single sample aliquots with NiS fire assay preconcentration, Chem. Geol., 141, 251268, 1997.
  • Ravizza, G., C. E. Martin, C. R. German, and G. Thompson, Os isotopes as tracers in seafloor hydrothermal systems: Metalliferous deposits from the TAG hydrothermal area, 26°N Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, 138, 105119, 1996.
  • Rehkämper, M., A. N. Halliday, J. G. Fitton, D.-C. Lee, M. Wieneke, and N. T. Arndt, Ir, Ru, Pt, and Pd in basalts and comatiites: New constraints for the geochemical behavior of the platinum-group elements in the mantle, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63, 39153934, 1999.
  • Reymer, A., and G. Schubert, Phanerozoic addition rates to the continental crust and crustal growth, Tectonics, 3, 6377, 1984.
  • Roy-Barman, M., and C. J. Allègre, 187Os/186Os ratios of mid-ocean ridge basalts and abyssal peridotites, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 58, 50435054, 1994.
  • Roy-Barman, M., and C. J. Allègre, 187Os/186Os in oceanic island basalts: Tracing oceanic crust recycling in the mantle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 129, 145161, 1995.
  • Roy-Barman, M., J.-M. Luck, and C. J. Allègre, Os isotopes in orogenic lherzolite massifs and mantle heterogeneities, Chem. Geol., 130, 5564, 1996.
  • Roy-Barman, M., G. J. Wasserburg, D. A. Papanastassiou, and M. Chaussidon, Osmium isotopic compositions and Re-Os concentrations in sulfide globules from basaltic glasses, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 154, 331347, 1998.
  • Schiano, P., J.-L. Birck, and C. J. Allégre, Osmium-strontium-neodymium-lead covariations in mid-ocean ridge basalt glasses and the heterogeneity of the upper mantle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 150, 363379, 1997.
  • Schmidt, G., and J. Snow, Os isotopes in mantle xenoliths from the Eifel volcanic field and the Vogelsberg (Germany): Age constraints on the lithospheric mantle, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 143, 694705, 2002.
  • Schmidt, G., J. Snow, Y. Niu, and R. Hekinian, PGE Fractionation in highly depleted oceanic harzburgites, East Pacific Rise, Eos Trans. AGU, 79(45), Fall Meet. Suppl., F1006, 1998.
  • Schmidt, G., H. Palme, K.-L. Kratz, and G. Kurat, Are highly siderophile elements (PGE, Re and Au) fractionated in the upper mantle of the Earth? New results on peridotites from Zabargad, Chem. Geol., 163, 167188, 2000.
  • Sen Gupta, J. G., Determination of noble metals in silicate rocks, ores and metallurgical samples by simultaneous multi-element graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction, Talanta, 40, 791797, 1993.
  • Sharma, M., G. J. Wasserburg, A. W. Hofmann, and D. A. Butterfield, Osmium isotopes in hydrothermal fluids from the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 179, 139152, 2000.
  • Smoliar, M. I., R. J. Walker, and J. W. Morgan, Re-Os ages of group IIA, IIIA, IVA and IVB iron meteorites, Science, 271, 10991102, 1996.
  • Snow, J. E., and G. Schmidt, Constraints on Earth accretion deduced from noble metals in the oceanic mantle, Nature, 391, 166169, 1998.
  • Snow, J. E., G. Schmidt, and E. Rampone, Os isotopes and highly siderophile elements (HSE) in the Ligurian ophiolites, Italy, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 175, 119132, 2000.
  • Staudigel, H., S. R. Hart, H.-U. Schmincke, and B. M. Smith, Cretaceous ocean crust at DSDP Site 417 and 418: Carbon uptake from weathering versus loss by magmatic outgassing, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 53, 30913094, 1989.
  • Staudigel, H., G. R. Davies, S. R. Hart, K. M. Marchant, and B. M. Smith, Large scale isotopic Sr, Nd and O isotopic anatomy of altered oceanic crust: DSDP/ODP sites 417/418, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 130, 169185, 1995.
  • Widom, E., P. Kepezhinskas, and M. Defant, The nature of metasomatism in the sub-arc mantle wedge: Evidence from Re-Os isotopes in Kamchatka peridotite xenoliths, Chem. Geol., 196, 283306, 2003.
  • Wood, S. A., Thermodynamic calculations of the volatility of the platinum group elements (PGE): The PGE content of fluids at magmatic temperatures, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 51, 30413050, 1987.
  • Woodland, S. J., D. G. Pearson, and M. F. Thirlwall, A platinum group element and Re-Os isotope investigation of siderophile element recycling in subduction zones: Comparison of Grenada, Lesser Antilles Arc, and the Izu-Bonin Arc, J. Petrol., 43(1), 171198, 2002.
  • Xiong, Y., and S. A. Wood, Experimental determination of the solubility of ReO2 and the dominant oxidation state of rhenium in hydrothermal solutions, Chem. Geol., 158, 245256, 1999.
  • Xiong, Y., and S. A. Wood, Experimental quantification of hydrothermal solubility of platinum-group elements with special reference to porphyry copper environments, Mineral. Petrol., 68, 128, 2000.
  • Zuleger, E., J. C. Alt, and J. A. Erzinger, Primary and secondary variations in major and trace element geochemistry of the lower sheeted dike complex: Hole 504B, Proc. Ocean Drill. Program Sci. Results, 137/140, 6580, 1995.