[1] A detailed record of non-sea-salt calcium, a proxy for dust, and sea-salt sodium, a proxy for sea salt, covering the last 45 kyr is presented. It shows that in the first part of the transition from the last glacial period to the Holocene (18–15 kyr BP), the changes in dust flux mainly reflect changes at the dust source, namely vegetation cover and local climate. The changes in the later part of the transition (12–11 kyr BP) are similar in extent to the changes seen in sea salt and most likely reflect a reorganization of the atmospheric circulation. During the last glacial period, considerable variation of dust but not of sea salt is observed, pointing to climatic changes in Patagonia, the main dust source for Dome C. A comparison of the glacial records from Dome C and Taylor Dome suggests that similar influences controlled aerosol input at both sites during this period.