Climate change and Arctic ecosystems: 1. Vegetation changes north of 55°N between the last glacial maximum, mid-Holocene, and present

Authors


Abstract

[1] A unified scheme to assign pollen samples to vegetation types was used to reconstruct vegetation patterns north of 55°N at the last glacial maximum (LGM) and mid-Holocene (6000 years B.P.). The pollen data set assembled for this purpose represents a comprehensive compilation based on the work of many projects and research groups. Five tundra types (cushion forb tundra, graminoid and forb tundra, prostrate dwarf-shrub tundra, erect dwarf-shrub tundra, and low- and high-shrub tundra) were distinguished and mapped on the basis of modern pollen surface samples. The tundra-forest boundary and the distributions of boreal and temperate forest types today were realistically reconstructed. During the mid-Holocene the tundra-forest boundary was north of its present position in some regions, but the pattern of this shift was strongly asymmetrical around the pole, with the largest northward shift in central Siberia (∼200 km), little change in Beringia, and a southward shift in Keewatin and Labrador (∼200 km). Low- and high-shrub tundra extended farther north than today. At the LGM, forests were absent from high latitudes. Graminoid and forb tundra abutted on temperate steppe in northwestern Eurasia while prostrate dwarf-shrub, erect dwarf-shrub, and graminoid and forb tundra formed a mosaic in Beringia. Graminoid and forb tundra is restricted today and does not form a large continuous biome, but the pollen data show that it was far more extensive at the LGM, while low- and high-shrub tundra were greatly reduced, illustrating the potential for climate change to dramatically alter the relative areas occupied by different vegetation types.

1. Introduction

[2] Arctic climate and ecosystems are expected to be highly sensitive to anthropogenic changes in atmospheric composition and hence radiative forcing. Early simulations of the global climatic response to CO2 doubling indicated increases in temperature by up to 12 K in the northern polar regions [Manabe and Wetherald, 1975]. More recent simulations that take into account the cooling effect of sulphate aerosols show less extreme changes [Cubasch et al., 2001], but it remains a robust generalization that the simulated high-latitude temperature response to increased greenhouse gas concentrations is stronger than the responses of the tropics and midlatitudes. This generalization has also been derived independently of models, by examining inferred patterns of climate change for various geological epochs [Hoffert and Covey, 1992]. The particular sensitivity of high-latitude climates can be explained by the operation of two powerful (and synergistic) positive feedbacks: changes in the extent and duration of sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean [Ganopolski et al., 1998; Braconnot et al., 1999; Vavrus, 1999], and changes in the albedo of the land surface as a consequence of changes in snow cover [Bonan et al., 1992; Foley et al., 1994; Berger, 2001]. Model experiments indicate that changes in land-surface albedo resulting from climatically induced shifts in the tundra-forest boundary play a role in the initiation of glaciations [Gallée et al., 1992; Gallimore and Kutzbach, 1996; de Noblet et al., 1996], amplification of high-latitude cooling during glaciations [Levis et al., 2000], and enhancement of the direct effects of higher than present northern summer insolation during interglacial periods [Foley et al., 1994; TEMPO Members, 1996; Texier et al., 1997].

[3] The palaeorecord provides an opportunity to test the simulations of past climates and hence to evaluate the climatic and ecological sensitivity of the Arctic as indicated by models. The Palaeovegetation Mapping Project (BIOME 6000; Prentice and Webb [1998]) produced the first maps of vegetation distribution across the northern high latitudes at 6000 14C years B.P. (6 ka) and 18,000 14C years B.P. (18 ka) using a formal procedure (biomization; Prentice et al. [1996]) based on plant functional types (PFTs). The biomization procedure was applied in BIOME 6000 region by region, where the regions were defined pragmatically so as to build on pre-existing collaborative projects. The Arctic was thus fragmented among four regions, with slight overlaps between them: Beringia (Alaska and part of NW Canada plus the Russian Far East; Edwards et al. [2000]), Canada and Eastern North America [Williams et al., 2000], Europe [Prentice et al., 1996; Tarasov et al., 2000], and the Former Soviet Union, excluding Beringia [Tarasov et al., 1998, 2000]. Slightly different allocations of pollen taxa to PFTs, and of PFTs to biomes, were adopted by the different regional working groups. There are no apparent discontinuities at regional boundaries in the BIOME 6000 maps reconstructed from modern surface samples [see Prentice et al., 2000]. This finding suggests that the differences in the regional biome schemes adopted in BIOME 6000 are not crucial, at least for the broad-scale patterns that BIOME 6000 was intended to reconstruct. However, the degree to which the reconstructed positions of transitions between steppe and tundra biomes at 18 ka have been influenced by differences in the regional biomization schemes has been questioned [Edwards et al., 2000; Tarasov et al., 2000; Elenga et al., 2000]. Thus a re-examination of the Arctic data using a consistent biomization scheme is timely.

[4] Several additional factors motivate a reconsideration of the distribution of Arctic biomes at key times in the past. The regional biomizations made in BIOME 6000 concentrated on differentiating forest types, and forest from tundra. There was no attempt to distinguish different types of tundra. Yet tundra is highly differentiated, structurally and floristically, and the differences are closely linked to climatic gradients. Knowledge of the distribution of these different tundra vegetation types in the past could improve our understanding of regional climate changes in the high latitudes. The distinctions among tundra types are also potentially important for feedbacks involving changing water and carbon exchanges, as these vegetation types differ greatly in their biogeochemical and biophysical characteristics [Chapin et al., 2000a, 2000b; Epstein et al., 2001] including the height of perennial biomass and the annual net primary production (NPP). The height of perennial biomass ranges from <5 cm in cushion-forb and prostrate dwarf-shrub tundra, to nearly 2 m in high-shrub tundra near treeline. The taller shrub-dominated vegetation types present a many times rougher surface and can greatly reduce surface albedo in the presence of snow. NPP ranges from <50 g C m−2 yr−1 in cushion-forb tundra to >300 g C m−2 yr−1 in high-shrub tundra [e.g., Christensen et al., 2000] implying a large range in carbon storage potential which is reinforced by slow decomposition rates in some shrub tundras. The lumping of all treeless Arctic vegetation into a single “tundra” biome for vegetation mapping and modeling purposes thus discards information about the land surface that is both ecologically and geophysically important.

[5] The international Pan-Arctic Initiative (PAIN) was set up with the goal of improving the ability of the ecological and geophysical communities to model Arctic vegetation types and their responses to environmental changes. The first part of the work carried out by PAIN was the production of pollen-based biome reconstructions compatible with a new global biogeography-biogeochemistry model, BIOME4, which was also developed in part within the PAIN project [Kaplan et al., 2003]. This paper documents the data sets and the biomization procedure developed by PAIN. The work enabled us to make a spatially detailed and methodologically consistent reconstruction of vegetation distribution in the high northern latitudes. Our primary aims were (a) to delimit the boundary between forest and tundra now and in the past, and (b) to reconstruct changes in the distribution of tundra types. We address some specific outstanding research questions: (a) the location of the Arctic treeline in the mid-Holocene, and in particular whether its late Holocene shifts have been zonally uniform; and (b) the nature of the vegetation of northern Eurasia and Beringia during the last glacial maximum (LGM), and in particular the interface between steppe and tundra vegetation types. The steppe-tundra interface at the LGM has been controversial because of the apparent lack of convincing modern analogues for this vegetation [Vartanyan et al., 1993; Goetcheus and Birks, 2001; Guthrie, 2001; Walker et al., 2001; Yurtsev, 2001]. It is important to understand the nature of the LGM vegetation because it provided the habitat for megaherbivore populations and hence support for human populations, including those that colonized the Americas (by way of the Bering land bridge) toward the end of the last glacial period.

2. Methods

2.1. Study Region

[6] The southernmost occurrence of tundra at low elevations in the Northern Hemisphere today is at about 55°N, along the southern coast of Hudson Bay in Canada. By confining our study area to the circumpolar region north of 55°N, we could encompass the full latitudinal range of the modern lowland tundra. This latitudinal limit also enabled us to process a great deal of information concerning the past and present distribution of boreal and cool-temperate forest types that occur north of 55°N (and in Fennoscandia, even north of 70°N).

2.2. Choice of Time Slices

[7] We assembled a comprehensive pollen data set for 0 ka (i.e., core tops and surface sediment samples), 6 ka (14C timescale) and 18 ka (14C timescale) (Figure 1). This choice of time slices allowed comparison with previous attempts to construct pollen-based biome maps covering different regions of the Arctic as generated by the BIOME 6000 project. These specific times were selected in BIOME 6000 in part to allow comparison with climate model simulations carried out within the framework of the Palaeoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP; Joussaume and Taylor [1995]) for 6 ka and 21 ka BP (astronomical timescale). Within the time resolution that can actually be achieved by correlating independently dated sediment cores, 6 ka 14C-years is effectively the same as 6 ka astronomical years BP, and 18 ka 14C-years is effectively equivalent to 21 ka astronomical years BP. The 6 ka (mid-Holocene) time period represents an interval when the total annual insolation received in the northern high latitudes was larger than today and the annual cycle of insolation was enhanced (Northern Hemisphere summer insolation was greater and winter insolation less than today). Other boundary conditions, most importantly ice sheet distributions, sea level and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations (CO2, CH4, N2O), were not materially different from those of the pre-industrial Holocene. The 21 ka (last glacial maximum, LGM) time period represents a contrasting interval when insolation was quite similar to today, but the continental ice sheets were at a maximum and greenhouse gas concentrations were at a minimum.

Figure 1.

Types of sites providing (a) modern pollen data, (b) 6 ka pollen data, and (c) 18 ka pollen data. In cases where two or more 6 ka or 18 ka sites lie very close to one another, they have been slightly shifted in these plots to permit each site to be individually resolved.

2.3. Pollen Data

[8] We generally used the single pollen sample that was closest in estimated 14C age to the designated time, provided it fell within a certain time range. However, because of the larger dating uncertainties and/or higher inter-sample variability characteristic of some 18 ka records, we used multiple samples from these sites. Each of these samples was independently allocated to a biome, and the reconstructed biome at the site was assumed to correspond to the biome given by the majority of the samples. Following the BIOME 6000 convention, we allowed samples that fell within 0 to 500 years for the modern sample data set, within ±500 years of 6 ka, and within ±1000 years of 18 ka. A few samples that fell just outside these designated time ranges were allowed in exceptional cases. At 0 ka, eight samples that were dated in the range 500 to 850 years B.P. were included, for comparison with fossil pollen samples from the same cores. Four mid-Holocene samples that fell beyond the designated time range but within ±700 years of 6 ka BP were included. We included one sample in the 18 ka data set that was dated to 20.7 ka because it provided critical information from the Bering Land Bridge [Elias et al., 1996] and because data from other parts of Beringia suggest relatively stable vegetation and climate during the interval 21 to 18 ka BP.

[9] Pollen data were available to us either as full pollen counts, or as pollen percentages derived from summary tables or scanned from published pollen diagrams. Typically, published pollen percentage summary tables and diagrams contain only major tree, shrub and herb taxa. Digitized pollen percentage data were used extensively in earlier studies in order to ensure a reasonably dense spatial coverage. The modern pollen-based maps of Europe made by Prentice et al. [1996], for example, are almost entirely based on digitized pollen percentage data, and about 50% of the sites used to construct the corresponding maps for Russia were digitized [Tarasov et al., 1998]. These studies, and similar studies from other regions, suggest that pollen percentage data of major taxa are generally adequate to discriminate between forest types but are less good at discriminating non-forest biomes. Since herbaceous taxa are an important diagnostic of different tundra vegetation types, we used original pollen counts to the greatest possible extent. Digitized pollen percentage data were used only from those regions (e.g., some parts of northern Fennoscandia and European Russia) from which no other data were available to us.

[10] The modern pollen data set consists of 2098 samples (Table 1), 382 of which are associated with a fossil sample at 6 ka and/or 18 ka (e.g., they are lacustrine or peat core tops, or terrestrial sections). The original pollen counts were available for most of the samples (1809). However, 289 samples (13%) were only available as pollen percentages. The samples are from a variety of site types, including lacustrine core tops (185), lacustrine surface samples (755), peat core tops (151), peat samples (19), moss polsters (596), terrestrial section tops (16), terrestrial soils and/or surface sediments (269), and air pollen collectors (7). Site information is lacking for 100 samples, 22 of which are associated with a fossil sample. The mid-Holocene data set includes 493 samples (Table 2). Original pollen counts were available for most of the samples (404). However, 89 samples (18%) were only available as pollen percentages. The samples are from lacustrine cores (230), peat cores (158) and terrestrial sections (33). Site information is lacking for 72 samples. The LGM data set includes 67 samples from 39 sites (Table 2). Original pollen counts were available for most of the samples (58). Nine samples (13%) were available only as pollen percentages. The samples are from lacustrine cores (28), peat cores (2) and terrestrial sections (37).

Table 1. Characteristics of the Modern Pollen Samplesa
Sample CodeSite NameSectorLatitude, degLongitude, degElevation, mLocal VegetationVegetation FormationSample TypeData TypeRecord Length, yearsNumber of 14C DatesReferences
  • a

    Latitude and longitude are given in decimal degrees, where N and E are conventionally positive and S and W are negative.

N148_0kTårnetWestern Europe69.6730.10n/aundisturbed peat core topcountca. 0–>50002 + topVorren [1983]
S030JuvjalampiWestern Europe62.6333.67150taiga dominated by Pinus sylvestristaigamoss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
S30210 Mile LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.05−145.42n/a alpine tundralacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
S15-115/1Labrador55.09−75.25244 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
S15-215/2Labrador55.83−75.02305 forest tundra/boreal forest transitionlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
S16-116/1Labrador55.41−75.07285 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
S17-117/1Labrador55.07−75.70235 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
S17-217/2Labrador55.25−74.93335 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
S17-317/3Labrador55.12−75.95255 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
S1436 Asseyes LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)62.65−141.07549Picea glauca and sedge meadowsblack spruce muskeg-sedge meadowslacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
TA02070 Mile Lake, Richardson HwyEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.52−145.23564 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S303Ace LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.52−147.56n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
icp38AdamsvatnetWestern Europe70.5329.45322 tundralacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
AGEAgeröds MosseWestern Europe55.8313.4258pasture and arable landnemoral forestpeat core topcount0–966021 + topNilsson [1964]
S039Ahaliorak LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)68.92−151.32329Betula shrub tussock tundra, Salix present (no Alnus)tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S273Ahaliorak LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)68.91−151.32n/a shrub tussock tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
icp32AhvenjärviWestern Europe68.9326.97155.5 pine forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
S533AiatskoeWestern Siberia57.0060.08300  peat core topdigitized %0–> = 90007 + topPeterson [1993]
RS143Alut LakeWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)60.302152.31480  lacustrine core topcount0–5357624 (11 rejected) + top + 1 tephraP. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
AMBALCHAmbarchik SurfaceWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)69.68163.8038 cushion forb tundraterrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Y. Igarashi et al. (unpublished data, 2003)
ANDYLAKEAndy LakeMacKenzie Delta64.65−128.081360shrub tundrashrub tundralacustrine core topcount0–11,3105 (1 rejected) + topSzeicz et al. [1995]
S047Angal LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)67.13−153.88853 mix of forest & tundralacustrine core topcount0–14,1303 + topBrubaker et al. [1983]
icp29AngeljärviWestern Europe67.7525.23193.6 northern boreal forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
ANGMAGSSAngmagssalikGreenland65.60−37.6510Carex/Sphagnum mire with Salix shrub tundrashrub tundrapeat core topcount0–>59001 + topBick [1978]
N139_0kÅrstrandmyraWestern Europe68.3014.0815  peat core topcount0–42002 + topVorren and Nilssen [1982]
N089_0kÅsenWestern Europe59.679.17668  unknowncount0–60003 + topHafsten et al. [1979]
PL080Asikpak LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)67.90−164.736Cyperaceae tundrashrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S061_0kÅstorpmossenWestern Europe59.5813.87133  peat core topcountca. 0–30001+ topLundqvist [1958]
TA013Austin's Cabin, St. Michael's VillageEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.47−162.099Peat bog peat samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
BABO0KBabozeroWestern Europe66.3737.52138Pinus-Picea-Betula forestboreal forestlacustrine core topcount0–11,8003 + topKremenetski and Patyk-Kara [1997]
VHC1Baie du DianaLabrador60.78−69.8350herb tundra, rock outcrops numeroustundralacustrine core topcount250–63301 + top + deglaciationRichard [1977]
BAIRDINBaird Inlet “Rock Basin Lake”Keewatin78.49−76.78295Ericales and mossy heath, Salix arcticaprostrate dwarf tundralacustrine core topcount0–90003+ topHyvärinen [1985a]
PL098Baker LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)65.03−150.38107Betula papyrifera, Populus sp., Picea mariana, P. glaucaforestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
SLJCR132Baker LakeKeewatin64.32−96.032dwarf-shrubtundraair pollen collectorcount00Ritchie and Lichti-Federovich [1967]
JTA181Baker Lake Site 1Keewatin64.30−96.00110 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA182Baker Lake Site 1Keewatin64.30−96.00110 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA183Baker Lake Site 1Keewatin64.30−96.00110 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA184Baker Lake Site 1Keewatin64.30−96.00110 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA185Baker Lake Site 1Keewatin64.30−96.00110 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA186Baker Lake Site 1Keewatin64.30−96.00110 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA187Baker Lake Site 1Keewatin64.30−96.00110 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA188Baker Lake Site 1Keewatin64.30−96.00110 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA190Baker Lake Site 2Keewatin64.70−95.37150 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA191Baker Lake Site 2Keewatin64.70−95.37150 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA192Baker Lake Site 2Keewatin64.70−95.37150 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA193Baker Lake Site 2Keewatin64.70−95.37150 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA194Baker Lake Site 2Keewatin64.70−95.37150 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA196Baker Lake Site 3Keewatin65.28−95.00250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA197Baker Lake Site 3Keewatin65.28−95.00250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA198Baker Lake Site 3Keewatin65.28−95.00250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA199Baker Lake Site 3Keewatin65.28−95.00250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA200Baker Lake Site 3Keewatin65.28−95.00250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
HC001Baker Lake Site 4Keewatin64.33−96.170  unknowncount00Cole [1969]
N049_0kBakkemyraWestern Europe69.2017.55140Sphagnum-Carex bogbirch forestpeat core topcount0–88005 + topVorren [1979]
S027_0kBälingsjönWestern Europe61.9517.25n/apine-spruce forest, Alnus incana on shorepine-spruce forestlacustrine core topcountca 0–30003 + topEngelmark and Wallin [1985]
N078_0kBarlindtjernWestern Europe58.178.17n/a  lacustrine core topcount0–>46003 + topHøeg [1982]
S023_0kBarsebäcksmossenWestern Europe55.7712.881  peat core topcount0–10,00015 + topDigerfeldt [1975]
BEACHBeach LakeMacKenzie Delta65.22−127.05n/a forest-tundralacustrine core topcount0–29901 + topRowe et al. [1975]
TA096Bear LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)60.42−152.37101 boreal forest/Pacific coastal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S499Beglianskii RiamWestern Siberia55.5081.56133  peat core topdigitized %0–60000 + 8 poll or stratPeterson [1993]
BELLSBell's LakeMacKenzie Delta65.02−127.48580open Picea muskeg and forestboreal forestlacustrine core topcount0–11,4505 + topSzeicz et al. [1995]
TA031Beluga Lake saltmarsh, HomerEastern Beringia (Alaska)59.64−151.523 saltmarsh/Pacific coastal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S051BerezovetsWestern Europe62.5235.3837taiga dominated by Picea moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
BETENKBetenkes SectionWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.67134.42135open Larix dahurica forest terrestrial section topcount0–28822 + topA. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
BEZDONBezdonnoeWestern Europe62.0332.77121Pinus, Piceamiddle taigapeat core topcount258–99003 + bot + 1 guess (top)Elina and Filimonova [1996], Elina [1981]
BI01BI01Labrador57.11−76.39190 shrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
BI03BI03Labrador57.12−76.41250 shrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
BI04BI04Labrador57.12−76.42250 shrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
BI05BI05Labrador57.13−76.41260 shrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
S155Big LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.63−156.8374Picea mariana muskeg with Betula papyrifera on elevated surfaces and some Populus tremuloidesboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S214Big LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.54−152.52259Picea mariana muskegblack spruce muskeglacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S286Big Sky LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)69.35−148.38274Picea glauca, Betula papyrifera, Populus tremuloidesarctic tundralacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
S131Birch LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.31−146.67274Picea glauca, Betula papyrifera, Populus tremuloidesboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S310Birch LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.31−146.67274Picea glauca, Betula papyrifera, Populus tremuloidesboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
PL086Birch Lake (NW Alaska)Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.12−160.8215Betula tussock tundra, Picea glauca stands north and southforest-tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
TA091Bison Gulch (R1450)Eastern Beringia (Alaska)63.83−149.00n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S062_0kBlåhammarsmyrenWestern Europe63.2312.17650  peat core topcount0–75004 + topLundqvist [1969]
BLAIRBlair LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.35−147.38257 boreal forestlacustrine core topcount96–10,7793 + topT. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
N062_0kBlomstölvatnWestern Europe59.776.25630Sphagnum bog with Scirpus, heaths, Carex and Nardusupper supbalpine zone probably had birch forest; today pasture and heathpeat core topcount0–16003 + topKvamme [1985]
BN01BN01Labrador55.00−73.52395 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
BN03BN03Labrador55.00−73.56395 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
BN06BN06Labrador55.00−73.54400 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
BN07BN07Labrador55.00−73.52395 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
BN2BBN2BLabrador55.00−73.55395 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
BN4BBN4BLabrador55.00−73.56395 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
BN5BBN5BLabrador55.00−73.55395 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
S002Bob LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)67.55−145.90546Picea mariana muskegboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S021Bog LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)65.47−144.48177mixed Picea glauca, Picea mariana, Betula papyriferaboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S283Bog WalkEastern Beringia (Alaska)69.35−148.38n/a arctic tundralacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
S047BojartshinaWestern Europe62.0735.2235taiga dominated by Picea moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
S048BojartshinaWestern Europe62.0735.2236taiga dominated by Picea moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
S488Bolshoe PershinoWestern Siberia59.3569.0050  peat core topdigitized %0–> = 90002 + topPeterson [1993]
BNBolvan Lake NorthEastern Europe67.7248.72160Salix scrub, Carex fens, and wet Sphagnum bogslow arctic tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Paus [2000]
BSBolvan Lake SouthEastern Europe67.7148.72160Salix scrub, Carex fens, and wet Sphagnum bogslow arctic tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Paus [2000]
T15ABolvan RavineEastern Europe67.7448.72168Sphagnum/Trichophorum cespitosumdwarf-shrub, grasslandpeat samplecount00Paus [2000]
S301Bonanza Creek LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.45−148.18n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
BORDERBorder BeaconLabrador55.33−63.20470tundra with scattered white spruceboreal forest and barrenlacustrine core topcount0–67805 + topLamb [1982, 1985]
S566BorokEastern Europe58.5537.5580  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
S091_0kBorsöknasjönWestern Europe59.3716.4224  lacustrine core topcount0–ca. 40007 + topHammar [1986]
N051_0kBöstadWestern Europe68.2513.7530Calluna dominatedtreeless, Vaccinium mytillus/grass vegetation (modified)peat core topcount0–ca. 70007 + topVorren [1979]
N044_0kBotnanesetWestern Europe61.605.1382heather, grass, sedge, Sphagnum, and scattered birch and pineopen pine forest, heather, and juniperpeat core topcount0–70000 + top + sedBjerck [1983]
BRAMGASBramgas SoGreenland70.52−28.03200Eriophorum and Carex meadow, with Ericales and Betula nana on drier sitesprostrate dwarf tundralacustrine core topcount0–65005 + topFunder [1978]
SOND3Braya So 1Greenland66.95−51.00n/a  moss polstercount00Pennington [1980]
SOND4Braya So 2Greenland66.94−51.00n/a  moss polstercount00Pennington [1980]
SOND11Braya So 3Greenland66.95−51.00n/a  moss polstercount00Pennington [1980]
icp39BuetjernWestern Europe70.6029.08138 tundralacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
S202Byers LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)62.73−150.12249mixed Picea glauca, Betula papyrifera, Populus balsamifera, Alnusboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S031_0kBymyrenWestern Europe62.5215.22290Sphagnum with lichen, Empetrum, Calluna on hummockspine-spruce forstpeat core topcount0–80007 + topEngelmark [1978]
icp18Caccevakjav'riWestern Europe70.6725.3573 tundra near treelinelacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
S054Cadbury LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)66.72−153.50200Picea mariana muskegboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
CANDELABCandelabra LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.68−130.651040Picea mariana, muskegboreal forestlacustrine core topcount0–10,54011 + top +1 tephraCwynar [1995]
JTA283Cape ChristianLabrador70.50−68.33300 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA284Cape ChristianLabrador70.50−68.33300 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA285Cape ChristianLabrador70.50−68.33300 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA286Cape ChristianLabrador70.50−68.33300 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA287Cape ChristianLabrador70.50−68.33300 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA288Cape ChristianLabrador70.50−68.33300 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA289Cape ChristianLabrador70.50−68.33300 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA290Cape ChristianLabrador70.50−68.33300 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA291Cape ChristianLabrador70.50−68.33300 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA292Cape ChristianLabrador70.50−68.33300 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
sao1aCape Sabler 1Central Siberia (Taimyr)74.33100.00n/a typical tundraterrestrial section topcount0–>17,00023 + topJ. Hahne (unpublished data, 2003)
sao3finCape Sabler 3Central Siberia (Taimyr)74.33100.00n/a typical tundraterrestrial section topcount0–ca 40003 + topG. N. Shilova (unpublished data, 2003)
sao4finCape Sabler 4Central Siberia (Taimyr)74.34100.00n/a typical tundraterrestrial section topcount0–>20001 + topG. N. Shilova (unpublished data, 2003)
CARIBOUCaribou HillLabrador55.67−63.25475tundra/Piceaboreal forest and tundralacustrine core topcount0–64005 + topLamb [1982, 1985]
CHABADA1Chabada (central Yakutia)Central Siberia (Lena)61.98129.37290 taiga (pine and larch forest)lacustrine core topcount105–85245 + topAndreev et al. [1989], Andreev and Klimanov [1989]
S036ChechkinoWestern Europe62.2534.0755taiga dominated Pinus sylvestris moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
RS150Cheeneigyn LakeWestern Beringia (Chukotka)64.77174.6330  lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
ChesnokChesnok VillageWestern Siberia60.0066.5042south part, northern Siberian taiga zone terrestrial section topcount0–10,0007 + topVolkova [1966], Volkov et al. [1973], Bakhareva [1985]
JTA320Chesterfield InletKeewatin63.33−90.7530 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA321Chesterfield InletKeewatin63.33−90.7530 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA322Chesterfield InletKeewatin63.33−90.7530 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA323Chesterfield InletKeewatin63.33−90.7530 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA324Chesterfield InletKeewatin63.33−90.7530 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA325Chesterfield InletKeewatin63.33−90.7530 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
PL099Chicago LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)65.65−150.15107mixed Picea glauca and Betula papyrifera, with Picea mariana muskeg near lakeboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S151Chilchukabena LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.92−151.58n/amosaic Picea glauca and Betula papyriferaboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S213Chilchukabena LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.90−151.50191mosaic Picea glauca and Betula papyriferaboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
HC005Choir Boy LakeKeewatin61.50−98.17168 forest-tundra lowlandsunknowncount00Cole [1969]
SLJCR023Choir Boy LakeKeewatin58.67−94.0035 forest-tundra lowlandslacustrine surface samplecount00Lichti-Federovich and Ritchie [1968]
SLJCR024Choir Boy LakeKeewatin58.67−94.0035 forest-tundra lowlandslacustrine surface samplecount00Lichti-Federovich and Ritchie [1968]
TA050Christiansen Lake (R3096)Eastern Beringia (Alaska)62.42−150.67n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
TA033Christiansen Lake, Talkeetna areaEastern Beringia (Alaska)62.32−150.06107 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S021ChudesnoeWestern Europe62.9336.02150taiga dominated Pinus sylvestris moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
CIRCLECircle LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)59.80−151.16300 cold mixed forest?lacustrine core topcount29–12,5682 + top + tephraT. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S133Clearwater LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.09−145.60335Picea mariana muskegrare Picea glauca and Populus balsamiferaboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
TA061Coastal station 24, Yukon DeltaEastern Beringia (Alaska)62.00−165.753 mesic to wet coastal tundralacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S119Coffee Can LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)65.28−156.9146Picea mariana muskegboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
s97ap15Cold BayEastern Beringia (Alaska)55.30−162.6510sedge-heath-prostrate willow tundragrass, sedge, ericads, with willow, dwarf birch, alder in protected areaspeat core topcount0–80002 + topA. P. Krumhardt and J. Jordan (unpublished data, 2003)
COMARUMComarum SoGreenland61.13−45.53125Salix glauca and Betula glandulosa shrub tundrashrub tundralacustrine core topcount0–85005 + topFredskild [1973]
TA026Copper River BasinEastern Beringia (Alaska)62.37−145.15552 boreal forestpeat samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
SLJCR136CoppermineKeewatin67.82−115.103spruce groves, heaths, dwarf birchforest-tundraair pollen collectorcount00Ritchie and Lichti-Federovich [1967]
COPPERCoppermine SaddlebackKeewatin67.83−115.3243  peat core topcount0–37005 (1 rejected) + topNichols [1975]
RJM028Cree Lake AreaMacKenzie Delta57.80−105.68549 Athabasca south secondary boreal forest regionlacustrine surface samplecount00Mott [1969]
RJM029Cree Lake AreaMacKenzie Delta57.80−105.68549 Athabasca south secondary boreal forest regionmoss polstercount00Mott [1969]
TA032Crow Creek MineEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.00−148.08244 Pacific coastal forestmoss polstercount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
CROWSNESCrowsnest LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)68.33−146.48881 forest/tundralacustrine core topcount120–10,8604 (1 rejected) + topP. M. Anderson (unpublished data, 2003)
S003Crowsnest LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)68.33−146.43881Betula shrub tundra, Picea glauca rare & layeredshrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
CYCLOIDCycloid LakeMacKenzie Delta55.27−105.27369  lacustrine core topcount0–85002 + topMott [1973]
RJM027Cycloid Lake AreaMacKenzie Delta55.25−105.27594 northern coniferous-boreal forest regionlacustrine surface samplecount00Mott [1969]
N052_0kDåfjord IIWestern Europe69.9819.4210Vaccinium myrtillus heath, with Nardus stricta      
Empetrum/Calluna heath and cultivated meadows peat core topcount0–>15501 + topVorren [1979]      
DALLICANDallican waterWestern Europe60.39−1.1056Calluna vulgaris, Cyperaceae, Sphagnum lacustrine core topcount−40–98986 + topBennett et al. [1992]
S017_0kDalstorpasjönWestern Europe57.6213.52188  lacustrine core topcount0–>50005 + topDennegård [1981]
N050_0kDeggemyra IIWestern Europe69.0317.057Ericales heath with Carex, Salix, and Betulabirch-pine woodland in undisturbed areas, otherwise pasture and meadowpeat core topcount0–22003 + topVorren [1979]
TA111Delta, So. end of Nelson IslandEastern Beringia (Alaska)60.42−165.132 mesic to wet coastal tundralacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
TA023Denali Hway, mile 15Eastern Beringia (Alaska)63.05−145.831036 shrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
TA022Denali Hway, mile 8Eastern Beringia (Alaska)63.08−145.651097 shrub tundra with some sprucelacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
TA087Denali Hwy, 2 mile W of Cantwell (R 1689)Eastern Beringia (Alaska)63.33−148.92n/a boreal forestpeat samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
TA048Denali Hwy, Mi 95Eastern Beringia (Alaska)63.26−147.78899 tundralacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
derev0kDerevanoi LakeWestern Siberia69.2386.57n/aLarix sibirica, Larix dyurica, Betula (tree + shrub), Alnus crispa, Juniperus communis and heaths, sedges, and herbs in openingsforest-tundralacustrine core topcount0–900011 (3 rejected) + topClayden et al. [1997]
DERPUTDerput, YakutiaCentral Siberia (Lena)57.03124.12700open larch forest + shrub birch, Sphagnumlarch forest (taiga)terrestrial section topcount276–10,8935 + topAndreev and Klimanov [1991]
S125Desperation LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)68.33−158.72396Betula shrub tundra within shrubless tundratundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
JTA273Dewar LakesLabrador68.62−71.17220 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA275Dewar LakesLabrador68.62−71.17220 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA276Dewar LakesLabrador68.62−71.17220 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA277Dewar LakesLabrador68.62−71.17220 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA278Dewar LakesLabrador68.62−71.17220 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA279Dewar LakesLabrador68.62−71.17220 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA280Dewar LakesLabrador68.62−71.17220 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA281Dewar LakesLabrador68.62−71.17220 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA282Dewar LakesLabrador68.62−71.17220 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
DIA375Diana 375Labrador60.99−69.96114tundratundralacustrine core topcount0–68203 + topRichard [1981]
DIMA2Dima-2 SectionWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)62.67146.02700Larix dahurica forest-tundra terrestrial section topcount210–31,1654 + topShilo et al. [1983]
DLINNOEDlinnoeWestern Europe62.3233.8566Pinus, Piceamiddle taigapeat core topcount200–11,0003 + bot + 1 guess (top)Filimonova and Elovicheva [1988]
R51DlinnoyeWestern Beringia (Chukotka)67.75−178.83280shrub tundra lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
DLINNOYEDlinnoye LakeWestern Beringia (Chukotka)67.75−178.00280ericad-Betula shrub tundra lacustrine core topcount50–14753 (1 rejected) + topP. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
S063_0kDocksmyrenWestern Europe63.0015.93350  peat core topcount0–78005 + topLundqvist [1969]
DOLG5-7DolgoeWestern Europe55.2328.18173spruce-pine forests alternate with fieldoak and coniferous forestslacustrine core topcount360–13,0000 + 5 pollenZernitskaya [1991]
DOLGOZ0KDolgoe OzeroCentral Siberia (Lena)71.87127.0740low shrub tundra dominated by Betula and Salix. Herbs are abundant in more well-drained areastundralacustrine core topcount0–14,00010 + core topPisaric [1996]
S289Downwind LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.04−146.12n/a alpine tundralacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
TA088Drashner Lake, Mi 131 Denali Hwy (R1687)Eastern Beringia (Alaska)63.40−148.90n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
DREPANOCDrepanocladus DamGreenland60.33−44.2740Betula pubscens and Salix glauca, tall shrub tundralow to high shrub tundralacustrine core topcount0–30002 + topFredskild [1973]
S055Dune IIEastern Beringia (Alaska)66.05−145.78183 closed forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
DUNEADune LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.42−149.90134 boreal forestlacustrine core topcount−43–13,05612 + top + 1 tephraBigelow [1997]
S305Dune LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.42−149.90134 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
EAGLENESEaglenest LakeMacKenzie Delta57.77−112.10725Picea marianaboreal forest - mixed woodlandlacustrine core topcount0–10,9406 + top + 1 otherVance [1986]
S284East CobbEastern Beringia (Alaska)62.42−144.04n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
S023East DunesEastern Beringia (Alaska)66.10−145.87198mixed Picea glauca, Betula papyriferaclosed forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S148East Okpilak LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)69.41−144.05579Betula shrub tundrashrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
SOND2East Store Saltso 1Greenland67.00−50.55n/a  moss polstercount00Pennington [1980]
SOND7East Store Saltso 2Greenland67.00−50.53n/a  moss polstercount00Pennington [1980]
SOND10East Store Saltso 3Greenland66.95−50.53n/a  moss polstercount00Pennington [1980]
PL085Eavok LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)66.87−161.381.5shrub tundra with Picea glaucatundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
EC02EC02Labrador56.02−74.95260 forest tundra/boreal forest transitionlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
EC03EC03Labrador56.02−74.98280 forest tundra/boreal forest transitionlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
TA047Echo LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.55−149.2224 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S044_0kEdånger IWestern Europe63.0518.2890Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-ideae, Lycopodium annotinum, Pleurozium schreberi, Pinusboreal forestpeat core topcountca 0–67004 + topHuttunen and Tolonen [1972], Olsson [1972]
EIGHTMILEightmile LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.89−149.25648 forest/tundralacustrine core topcount61–14,0794 + topAger [1983]
S040Eleanor LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)68.15−151.70616Betula-Salix-Ericaceous shrub tundrashrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
ELGENNYAElgennya LakeWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)62.08149.001040Larix forest-tundra lacustrine core topcount0–15,3456 + topAnderson et al. [1997b]
R56Elgennya LakeWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)62.08149.001040Larix forest-tundra lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
R81Elgygytgyn 104mWestern Beringia (Chukotka)67.50172.08490shrub tundra lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
R82Elgygytgyn 136mWestern Beringia (Chukotka)67.50172.08490shrub tundra lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
R83Elgygytgyn 163mWestern Beringia (Chukotka)67.50172.08490shrub tundra lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
R65Elikchan Lake 1Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)60.75151.88810Larix forest lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
R66Elikchan Lake 2Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)60.75151.88810Larix forest lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
R64Elikchan Lake 3Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)60.75151.88810Larix forest lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
R58Elikchan Lake 4Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)60.75151.88810Larix forest lacustrine core topcount78–47,71312 (9 rejected) + top + 1 tephraLozhkin and Anderson [1995], Lozhkin et al. [1995]
S250Elusive LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)68.66−148.52n/aBetula shrub tundrashrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S044Empire LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)67.41−149.78914Betula shrub tundra with Picea forest within 2 kmforest-tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
ENGMANEngelskmandens HavnGreenland69.26−53.90n/a  moss polstercount00Pennington [1980]
ENNADAIEnnadai LakeKeewatin61.17−100.92168Picea/Larix/Alnus/Salixtundra-open boreal forest transitionpeat core topcount280–619012 + topBender et al. [1965, 1966, 1967], Nichols [1967a, 1967b, 1967c]
JTA107Ennadai Lake [Site 3]Keewatin61.13−100.88400 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA109Ennadai Lake [Site 3]Keewatin61.13−100.88400 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA110Ennadai Lake [Site 3]Keewatin61.13−100.88400 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA111Ennadai Lake [Site 3]Keewatin61.13−100.88400 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA113Ennadai Lake [Site 3]Keewatin61.13−100.88400 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA115Ennadai Lake [Site 3]Keewatin61.13−100.88400 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA116Ennadai Lake [Site 3]Keewatin61.13−100.88400 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA119Ennadai Lake [Site 3]Keewatin61.13−100.88400 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA120Ennadai Lake [Site 3]Keewatin61.13−100.88400 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA121Ennadai Lake [Site 3]Keewatin61.13−100.88400 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA122Ennadai Lake [Site 3]Keewatin61.13−100.88400 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA123Ennadai Lake [Site 3]Keewatin61.13−100.88400 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA125Ennadai Lake [Site 3]Keewatin61.13−100.88400 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA127Ennadai Lake [Site 3]Keewatin61.13−100.88400 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA128Ennadai Lake [Site 4]Keewatin62.03−99.73250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA129Ennadai Lake [Site 4]Keewatin62.03−99.73250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA130Ennadai Lake [Site 4]Keewatin62.03−99.73250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA131Ennadai Lake [Site 4]Keewatin62.03−99.73250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA132Ennadai Lake [Site 4]Keewatin62.03−99.73250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA133Ennadai Lake [Site 4]Keewatin62.03−99.73250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA135Ennadai Lake [Site 4]Keewatin62.03−99.73250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA136Ennadai Lake [Site 4]Keewatin62.03−99.73250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA137Ennadai Lake [Site 4]Keewatin62.03−99.73250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA138Ennadai Lake [Site 4]Keewatin62.03−99.73250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA139Ennadai Lake [Site 4]Keewatin62.03−99.73250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA140Ennadai Lake [Site 4]Keewatin62.03−99.73250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA141Ennadai Lake [Site 4]Keewatin62.03−99.73250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA142Ennadai Lake [Site 4]Keewatin62.03−99.73250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
N064_0kErdal-1Western Europe61.877.18600 heath and Betula forestpeat core topcount0-ca. 30001 + topKvamme [1982]
JTA201Esker [CA:NWT]Keewatin66.22−92.38250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA202Esker [CA:NWT]Keewatin66.22−92.38250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA203Esker [CA:NWT]Keewatin66.22−92.38250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA204Esker [CA:NWT]Keewatin66.22−92.38250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA208Esker [CA:NWT]Keewatin66.22−92.38250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA209Esker [CA:NWT]Keewatin66.22−92.38250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA210Esker [CA:NWT]Keewatin66.22−92.38250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA294Eskimo PointKeewatin61.10−94.0830 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA295Eskimo PointKeewatin61.10−94.0830 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA296Eskimo PointKeewatin61.10−94.0830 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA297Eskimo PointKeewatin61.10−94.0830 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA298Eskimo PointKeewatin61.10−94.0830 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA299Eskimo PointKeewatin61.10−94.0830 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
icp21EsturvandWestern Europe70.4327.33236 tundralacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
S072Etivlik LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)68.13−156.03631Betula-Salix-Alnusshrub tundralacustrine core topcount110–13,9904P. M. Anderson (unpublished data, 2003)
EZERIZEzerischWestern Europe55.8530.00165Cultivat landscape, Pinus-Betula, Piceaoak-dark coniferous forestslacustrine core topcount667–10,3100 + 1 guess (top) + 2 pollenBogdel' [1984], Yelovicheva and Bogdel' [1985]
FAREWELLFarewell LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)62.55−153.63320 boreal forestlacustrine core topcount0–12,5825 + topHu et al. [1996]
S007_0kFärskesjönWestern Europe56.1715.8715 oak-birch woodlands, some beech (where not grazed)lacustrine core topcount 0 + top + pollenBerglund [1966]
S134Fielding LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.19−145.65906Picea glauca, high Salix and Betula shrubsforest-tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
R57Figurnoye LakeWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)62.10149.001053Larix forest-tundra lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
N143_0kFinnbyWestern Europe70.1719.50n/a  peat core topcountca. 0–20002 (1 rejected) + topVorren [1983]
S211Fish LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.80−148.20274mixed Populus balsamifera and Betula papyrifera, with Alnus shrubsboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
N039_0kFisketjernWestern Europe59.088.58592Sphagnum, Carex, Eriophorum, Narthecium, Molinia, bog with Ericadsbog with scattered Pinus, Picea, Betula (tree and shrub), and Salixpeat core topcount0–>55003 + topHøeg [1980]
FJELLNASFjellnasWestern Europe62.5512.17780Adjacent uppermost tree limit, Betula unknowncount0–497514 (1 rejected) + topKönigsson [1984, 1986]
S024_0kFlarkenWestern Europe58.6013.72108 Picea-Pinus with occasional Ulmus, Tilia, Quercus, Fraxinus, Corylus in favorable spotslacustrine core topcount0–10,00013 + topDigerfeldt [1977]
S064_0kFlatruetWestern Europe62.7012.751000  peat core topcount0–73003 + topLundqvist [1969]
S300Floatplane LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.24−148.40n/a alpine open forest/tundra transitionlacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
N073_0kFlöytmyrWestern Europe59.9810.58192Sphagnum bogspruce forestpeat core topcount0–90004 + topHafsten [1956], Hafsten et al. [1979]
N160_0kFormofossWestern Europe64.4712.30175  unknowncount  Selvik [1985]
N069_0kForramyreneWestern Europe63.5811.50403hummock tops with Betula nana, Calluna, Eriopphorum sphagnum moss between hummocks peat core topcount0–64005 + topHafsten and Solem [1976]
SLJCR135Fort ResolutionMacKenzie Delta61.18−113.68158open spruce-lichennorthern conifer forestair pollen collectorcount00Ritchie and Lichti-Federovich [1967]
SLJCR138Fort SimpsonMacKenzie Delta61.87−121.3396open spruce-lichennorthern conifer forestair pollen collectorcount00Ritchie and Lichti-Federovich [1967]
FORT1Fortune Bay 1Greenland69.25−53.95n/a  moss polstercount00Pennington [1980]
FORT2Fortune Bay 2Greenland69.25−53.97n/a  moss polstercount00Pennington [1980]
N061_0kFrettestölWestern Europe59.736.18580Scirpus, Eriophorum, Juncaceae, Carex, Sphagnumsubalpine birch forest upland pastures; wamppeat core topcount0–23003 + topKvamme [1985]
S281Frightened Duck LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.19−149.10n/a alpine open forest/tundra transitionlacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
GALIUMKGalium Kaer BGreenland61.17−43.5265  peat core topcount0–70008 + topFredskild [1973]
N038_0kGamaWestern Europe59.088.58538Sphagnum, Carex, Eriophorum, Narthecium, Moliniabog, with Ericadsbog with scattered Pinus, Picea, Betula (tree and shrub), and Salixpeat core topcount0–>75003 + topHøeg [1980]
N065_0kGamle Saterkulen-1Western Europe61.927.25660 near Betula tree-linepeat core topcount0–60001 + topKvamme [1982]
N070_0kGardbergmyrenWestern Europe61.129.02680Carex, Scirpus, Luzula, Poaceae, and shrubs (Potentilla palustris, Vaccinium myrtilus, V. uliginosum, V. vitis-idaea)Picea, Pinus, Betula, and Salix forestpeat core topcount0–>34003 + topHøeg [1974]
GB01GB01Labrador55.12−75.25325 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
N066_0kGeisdalen-1Western Europe61.637.38840 near Betula tree-linepeat core topcount0–40002 + topKvamme [1982]
GekGek LakeWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)63.38147.65969  lacustrine core topcount88–84697 (2 rejected) + topP. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
R73Gek LakeWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)63.38147.65969Larix forest lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
gladkoeGladkoye BogWestern Siberia55.0083.3380forest steppe boundary terrestrial section topcount0–10,00012 (4 rejected) + topFirsov et al. [1982], Orlova [1990]
GLUBOKOEGlubokoeWestern Europe61.0736.0550Piceamiddle taigapeat core topcount312–11,0001 + bot + 1 guess (top)Elina [1981]
S440GlukharinoeWestern Siberia66.0069.0050  peat core topdigitized %0–> = 90000 + 10 poll or stratPeterson [1993]
R61Glukhoye LakeWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)59.75149.923Larix forest lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
GMM045GMM045MacKenzie Delta66.17−127.50n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM046GMM046MacKenzie Delta65.83−126.17n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM047GMM047MacKenzie Delta65.75−128.17n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM051GMM051MacKenzie Delta64.83−123.50n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM052GMM052MacKenzie Delta64.42−122.70n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM054GMM054MacKenzie Delta64.40−123.50n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM055GMM055MacKenzie Delta62.33−122.23n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM056GMM056MacKenzie Delta63.82−120.43n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM058GMM058MacKenzie Delta63.88−122.62n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM059GMM059MacKenzie Delta62.75−122.97n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM060GMM060MacKenzie Delta63.22−122.97n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM061GMM061MacKenzie Delta63.62−122.73n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM062GMM062MacKenzie Delta62.90−120.10n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM063GMM063MacKenzie Delta62.17−121.05n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM064GMM064MacKenzie Delta62.83−115.97n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM065GMM065MacKenzie Delta62.43−114.35n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM067GMM067MacKenzie Delta61.20−120.05n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM068GMM068MacKenzie Delta60.58−116.20n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM074GMM074MacKenzie Delta55.63−116.75n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM075GMM075MacKenzie Delta55.25−114.67n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM076GMM076MacKenzie Delta55.08−113.67n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM093GMM093MacKenzie Delta55.08−117.50n/a subalpine-boreal transition forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM095GMM095Eastern Beringia (Alaska)55.25−119.17n/a subalpine-boreal transition forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GMM096GMM096MacKenzie Delta57.50−117.50n/a subalpine-boreal transition forestlacustrine surface samplecount00MacDonald [1984], MacDonald and Ritchie [1986]
GoluboyeGoluboye LakeWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)61.12152.27810  lacustrine core topcount0–11,5999 (1 rejected) + top + 1 tephraP. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
R71Goluboye LakeWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)61.12152.27810Larix forest lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
S540GorbonovskoeWestern Siberia57.9160.50200  unknowndigitized %0,90002 + topPeterson [1993]
S489Gorno-SlinkinoWestern Siberia58.7568.8150  peat core topdigitized %0–> = 900010 + topVolkov et al. [1973], Peterson [1993]
GOTNAVOLGotnavolokWestern Europe62.2033.80110Pinus, Piceamiddle taigapeat core topcount59–11,2002 + bot + 1 guess (top)Elina [1981], Elina and Filimonova [1987, 1996], Elina and Khomutova [1987]
GRANDFTRGrandfather LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)59.80−158.52142 boreal forestlacustrine core topcount0–12,9338 (2 rejected) + topHu et al. [1995]
S168Grant LakeKeewatin59.80−158.52142Picea glauca, Alnus, Betula shrub tundraforest-tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
GRANTGrant LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.72−100.47204  lacustrine core topcount0–10201 + topKay [1979]
GRAVELGravel RidgeLabrador55.03−62.63565tundra/Piceaboreal forest and barrenlacustrine core topcount0–64009 (5 rejected) + topLamb [1982, 1985]
S071Grayling LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)66.80−150.35425sparse Picea glauca, Betula shrub tundraforest tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S280Grayling LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)66.58−150.23n/a alpine open forest/tundra transitionlacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
S009Grayling LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)68.02−143.05339sparse Picea glauca open forest lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
GRETSKOEGretskoeWestern Europe55.6327.77134Alnus, Pinus, BetulaQuerceto-Piceetum (south taiga)lacustrine core topcount686–11,6320 + 4 pollBogdel' [1984], Elovicheva and Bogdel' [1985]
S138Grizzly LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)62.71−144.19713Picea glauca with Picea mariana, Betula papyrifera, Populus, sp., Salix, Alnusboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
icp65Gronddals traskWestern Europe60.4219.901 mixed forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
TA021Grouse LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)60.20−149.3876 Pacific coastal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
TA107Grouse Lake, near SewardEastern Beringia (Alaska)60.08−149.5076 Pacific coastal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S495Guba DoWestern Europe69.2633.83150  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
icp16Gukkesjaeg'giWestern Europe69.5723.63390 birch forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
N074_0kGunnildsmyrWestern Europe59.2011.0826Sphagnum bog (cleared)coniferous and mixed coniferous forest and cultivated fieldspeat core topcount0–<50000Danielsen [1970]
R52Gytgykaii LakeWestern Beringia (Chukotka)63.42176.55103shrub tundra lacustrine core topcount0–27,3324 + topP. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
HAILHail LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)60.03−129.02690Picea mariana, P. glauca, Pinus contortaboreal forestlacustrine core topcount60–995011 (4 rejected) + topCwynar [1995]
JTA256Hall BeachKeewatin68.78−81.2540 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA257Hall BeachKeewatin68.78−81.2540 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA258Hall BeachKeewatin68.78−81.2540 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA259Hall BeachKeewatin68.78−81.2540 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA260Hall BeachKeewatin68.78−81.2540 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA261Hall BeachKeewatin68.78−81.2540 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA262Hall BeachKeewatin68.78−81.2540 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
S047_0kHällaWestern Europe63.8717.20288Eriophorum vaginitum, Betula nana, Vaccinium uliginosum, V. oxycoccos, Sphagnum angustifolium peat core topcount0–73007 + topHuttunen and Tolonen [1972], Olsson [1972]
S066_0kHällåfloarnaWestern Europe63.1014.93360  peat core topcount0–ca. 10,0006 + topLundqvist [1969]
S065_0kHallviksmyrenWestern Europe63.7315.47330  peat core topcount0–85007 + topLundqvist [1969]
icp51HammaslampiWestern Europe67.5027.92232.1 northern boreal forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
S102_0kHamptjärn IWestern Europe63.8820.2264ombotrophic and minerotrophic vegetationdry pine heath forest and moist pine-spruce-moss forestpeat core topcountca 0-60004 + topHuttunen and Tolonen [1972]
HANGINGHanging LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)68.38−138.38500tussock tundra/wet sedge/heath/fellfieldtundralacustrine core topcount0–33,09020 + topCwynar [1980, 1982]
HARDINGHarding LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.44−146.91n/aPicea glauca, Betula papyrifera, Populus tremuloidesboreal forestlacustrine core topcount20–13,9004 + topNakao et al. [1980], Ager [1982, 1983], Ager and Brubaker [1985]
S130Harding LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.43−146.91n/aPicea glauca, Betula papyrifera, Populus tremuloidesboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S313Harding LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.44−146.91n/aPicea glauca, Betula papyrifera, Populus tremuloidesboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
icp30HarjuntausjarviWestern Europe68.4726.00276 northern boreal forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
icp59HarkajarviWestern Europe61.3827.38110.3 northern boreal forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
icp40Hav'gajav'riWestern Europe70.1728.40118 birch forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
icp15HavggajavrreWestern Europe68.9523.12362 birch forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
S048Headwaters LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)67.93−155.05820Betula shrub tundrashrub tundralacustrine core topcount0–11,9503 + topBrubaker et al. [1983]
HEBRONHebron LakeLabrador58.20−63.03170shrub tundratundralacustrine core topcount0–88603 + topLamb [1982, 1984]
HFL71Hebron LakeLabrador58.20−63.03170shrub tundratundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982]
N157_0kHegraWestern Europe63.4711.10210  unknowncount  Sandvik [1986]
DLEF037Helen ChutesLabrador58.18−65.7730  moss polstercount00Elliot-Fisk et al. [1982]
DLEF038Helen ChutesLabrador58.18−65.7730  moss polstercount00Elliot-Fisk et al. [1982]
DLEF039Helen ChutesLabrador58.18−65.7730  moss polstercount00Elliot-Fisk et al. [1982]
DLEF040Helen ChutesLabrador58.18−65.7730  moss polstercount00Elliot-Fisk et al. [1982]
N140_0kHelgöyWestern Europe70.1719.50n/a  peat core topcount0–ca. 20005 + topVorren and Nilssen [1982]
HEST2HestvatnAtlantic64.02−20.7050  lacustrine core topcount34–61941 + top + 8 tephrasHallsdottir [1996]
HFL35HFL35Labrador55.10−62.73569dry tundraforest tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL36HFL36Labrador55.20−62.73575dry tundraforest tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL37HFL37Labrador55.23−62.65623dry tundraforest tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL38HFL38Labrador55.22−62.25570dry tundraforest tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL39HFL39Labrador55.10−62.20590dry tundraforest tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL43HFL43Labrador57.13−63.08500dry tundratundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL44HFL44Labrador57.17−63.17510dry tundratundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL45HFL45Labrador57.28−63.13410dry tundratundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL46HFL46Labrador57.33−62.80500dry tundratundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL47HFL47Labrador57.27−62.87470dry tundratundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL50HFL50Labrador56.65−64.53510wet tundratundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL51HFL51Labrador56.65−64.50523wet tundratundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL52HFL52Labrador56.58−64.50510wet tundratundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL53HFL53Labrador56.37−64.25460dry tundra foresttundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL54HFL54Labrador56.28−63.95480wet tundra foresttundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL55HFL55Labrador56.30−64.18510dry tundratundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL56HFL56Labrador56.17−64.42470wet tundraforest tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL57HFL57Labrador55.03−62.65559forest tundraforest tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL64HFL64Labrador55.05−63.12554forest tundraforest tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL65HFL65Labrador55.13−63.20545forest tundraforest tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL66HFL66Labrador55.40−63.38526forest tundraforest tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL68HFL68Labrador57.33−62.92500dry tundratundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL69HFL69Labrador55.45−62.03388forest tundraforest tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
HFL70HFL70Labrador57.62−62.67150forest tundraforest tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Lamb [1982, 1984]
D001_0kHolmegaard BogWestern Europe55.2811.6731  peat core topcount0–10,00026 + topAndersen et al. [1983]
HONEYMOOHoneymoon PondEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.63−138.401160shrub tundra, isolated Picea grovesshrub tundralacustrine core topcount10–955020 (1 rejected) + topCwynar and Spear [1991]
HOPEDALEHopedale PondLabrador55.47−60.2876  lacustrine core top%200–56005 (2 rejected) + topShort and Nichols [1977]
S049Hoth LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)67.57−151.38549Picea glauca and Betula shrub tundraforest-tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S026Howard LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)66.63−147.77317Picea glauca forestboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S013Howling Dog SouthEastern Beringia (Alaska)67.18−141.08244mixed Picea glauca-Betula papyriferaboreal forest (burned)lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS001HR 000 [Yukon River]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)65.87−149.75100 Yukon Lowland Forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS002HR 000 [Yukon River]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)65.87−149.75100 Yukon Lowland Forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS003HR 000 [Yukon River]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)65.87−149.75100 Yukon Lowland Forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS004HR 001Eastern Beringia (Alaska)65.88−149.83150 Yukon Lowland Forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS005HR 002 [Five Mile]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)65.92−149.92200 Yukon Lowland Forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS006HR 002 [Five Mile]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)65.92−149.92200 Yukon Lowland Forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS007HR 002 [Five Mile]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)65.92−149.92200 Yukon Lowland Forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS008HR 003 [Ray River]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)65.98−150.00183 Yukon Lowland Forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS009HR 014Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.42−150.58466 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS010HR 015Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.44−150.62450 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS011HR 016 [Old Man Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.45−150.67416 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS012HR 016 [Old Man Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.45−150.67416 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS013HR 016 [Old Man Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.45−150.67416 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS014HR 017Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.47−150.70650 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS015HR 018Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.52−150.78333 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS016HR 018Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.52−150.78333 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS017HR 018Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.52−150.78333 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS018HR 019 [Arctic Circle]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.55−150.80433 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS019HR 020Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.58−150.75533 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS020HR 020Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.58−150.75533 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS021HR 020Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.58−150.75533 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS022HR 021Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.62−150.70366 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS023HR 022 [South Forkbonanza Creek]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.63−150.67283 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS024HR 022 [South Forkbonanza Creek]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.63−150.67283 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS025HR 022 [South Forkbonanza Creek]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.63−150.67283 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS026HR 024Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.75−150.70533 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS027HR 024Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.75−150.70533 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS028HR 025Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.77−150.70366 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS029HR 026 [Prospect Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.80−150.72316 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS030HR 026 [Prospect Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.80−150.72316 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS031HR 026 [Prospect Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.80−150.72316 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS032HR 028Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.90−150.50366 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS033HR 028Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.90−150.50366 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS034HR 028Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.90−150.50366 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS035HR 030 [Grayling Lake]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.95−150.42383 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS036HR 030 [Grayling Lake]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.95−150.42383 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS037HR 030 [Grayling Lake]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)66.95−150.42383 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS038HR 032Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.02−150.33466 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS039HR 032Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.02−150.33466 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS040HR 032Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.02−150.33466 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS041HR 034Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.07−150.37366 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS042HR 034Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.07−150.37366 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS043HR 034Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.07−150.37366 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS044HR 036Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.02−150.33316 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS045HR 036Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.02−150.33316 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS046HR 036Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.02−150.33316 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS047HR 038 [Coldfoot Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.27−150.17333 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS048HR 038 [Coldfoot Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.27−150.17333 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS049HR 043Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.45−150.08383 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS050HR 043Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.45−150.08383 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS051HR 043Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.45−150.08383 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS052HR 044Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.47−149.43383 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS053HR 044Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.47−149.43383 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS054HR 044Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.47−149.43383 boreal forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS055HR 045Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.48−149.37400 Montane forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS056HR 045Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.48−149.37400 Montane forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS057HR 046Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.53−149.83400 Montane forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS058HR 046Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.53−149.83400 Montane forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS059HR 046Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.53−149.83400 Montane forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS060HR 047Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.55−149.73400 Montane forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS061HR 047Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.55−149.73400 Montane forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS062HR 048Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.60−149.78433 Montane forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS063HR 048Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.60−149.78433 Montane forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS064HR 049Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.62−149.75466 Montane forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS065HR 049Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.62−149.75466 Montane forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS066HR 049Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.62−149.75466 Montane forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS067HR 050 [Dietrich Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.07−149.73500 Montane forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS068HR 050 [Dietrich Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.07−149.73500 Montane forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS069HR 050 [Dietrich Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.07−149.73500 Montane forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS070HR 051Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.72−149.25566 Montane forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS071HR 051Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.72−149.25566 Montane forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS072HR 051Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.72−149.25566 Montane forestmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS073HR 052Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.77−149.28600 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS074HR 052Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.77−149.28600 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS075HR 053Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.80−149.83616 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS076HR 053Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.80−149.83616 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS077HR 053Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.80−149.83616 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS078HR 054 [Timberline Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.92−149.83666 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS079HR 054 [Timberline Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.92−149.83666 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS080HR 054 [Timberline Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.92−149.83666 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS081HR 055Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.93−149.83700 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS082HR 055Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.93−149.83700 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS083HR 055Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.93−149.83700 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS084HR 056Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.95−149.80733 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS085HR 056Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.95−149.80733 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS086HR 056Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.95−149.80733 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS087HR 057 [Table Mountain SC.]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.98−149.62856 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS088HR 057 [Table Mountain SC.]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.98−149.62856 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS089HR 057 [Table Mountain SC.]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.98−149.62856 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS090HR 058Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.00−149.75850 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS091HR 058Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.00−149.75850 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS092HR 058Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.00−149.75850 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS093HR 059Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.02−149.731100 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS094HR 059Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.02−149.731100 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS095HR 059Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.02−149.731100 subalpine timberline regionmoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS096HR 060 [Chandler Camp]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.08−149.581133 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS097HR 060 [Chandler Camp]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.08−149.581133 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS099HR 061Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.10−149.551466 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS100HR 066Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.35−149.331000 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS101HR 067Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.37−149.33916 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS102HR 068Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.38−149.33933 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS103HR 068Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.38−149.33933 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS104HR 068Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.38−149.33933 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS105HR 069 [Pump Station 4]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.42−149.38900 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS106HR 069 [Pump Station 4]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.42−149.38900 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS107HR 070 [Atigun Gorge]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.43−149.33933 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS108HR 071 [Galbraith Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.45−149.471000 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS109HR 071 [Galbraith Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.45−149.471000 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS110HR 072Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.48−149.521000 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS111HR 072Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.48−149.521000 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS112HR 073Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.56−149.53933 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS113HR 073Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.56−149.53933 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS114HR 074 [Toolik Lake Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.63−149.60833 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS115HR 074 [Toolik Lake Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.63−149.60833 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS116HR 074 [Toolik Lake Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.63−149.60833 Brooks Range alpine tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS117HR 075Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.63−149.50866 Southern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS118HR 076 [Kuparuk River]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.63−149.42933 Southern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS119HR 076 [Kuparuk River]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.63−149.42933 Southern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS120HR 077Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.65−149.33900 Southern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS121HR 077Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.65−149.33900 Southern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS122HR 078 [Toolik River Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.07−149.17866 Southern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS123HR 078 [Toolik River Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.07−149.17866 Southern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS124HR 079Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.70−149.07733 Southern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS125HR 079Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.70−149.07733 Southern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS126HR 080Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.72−149.98616 Southern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS127HR 080Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.72−149.98616 Southern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS128HR 082Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.82−149.87500 Southern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS129HR 082Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.82−149.87500 Southern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS130HR 084Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.89−149.88433 Southern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS131HR 086Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.97−149.87386 Southern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS132HR 086Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.97−149.87386 Southern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS133HR 086Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.97−149.87386 Southern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS134HR 087Eastern Beringia (Alaska)69.03−149.87366 Southern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS135HR 088Eastern Beringia (Alaska)69.05−148.02400 Northern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS136HR 088Eastern Beringia (Alaska)69.05−148.02400 Northern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS137HR 090 [Happy Valley Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)69.15−148.90350 Northern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS138HR 090 [Happy Valley Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)69.15−148.90350 Northern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS139HR 092Eastern Beringia (Alaska)69.18−148.84283 Northern Foothills arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS140HR 111Eastern Beringia (Alaska)70.02−148.6750 Coastal Plain arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS141HR 112Eastern Beringia (Alaska)70.06−148.5840 Coastal arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS142HR 112Eastern Beringia (Alaska)70.06−148.5840 Coastal arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS143HR 113Eastern Beringia (Alaska)70.09−148.5033 Coastal arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS144HR 114Eastern Beringia (Alaska)70.13−148.4526 Coastal arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS145HR 114Eastern Beringia (Alaska)70.13−148.4526 Coastal arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS146HR 115Eastern Beringia (Alaska)70.18−148.4520 Coastal arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS150HR 118 [Prudhoe Pad F Climate Station]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)70.35−148.9210 Coastal arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
SKS152HR 120Eastern Beringia (Alaska)70.38−148.5810 Coastal arctic tundramoss polstercount00Webber et al. [1979], Short et al. [1983, 1986]
S020_0kHullsjönWestern Europe58.3512.3838 Picea-Pinus with occasional Betula, Ulmus, Tilia, Quercus, Fraxinuslacustrine core topcount0–ca. 60006 + topDigerfeldt and Welinder [1978]
icp28HuumojarviWestern Europe65.1026.1375.9 middle boreal forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
S432IamalWestern Siberia68.8370.5820  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
S447IamsoveiWestern Siberia65.6678.2550  peat core topdigitized %0–60000 + 9 poll or stratPeterson [1993]
IDAVAINIdavain LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)58.77−155.95223Alnus thickets, Betula, Salix shrubsshrub tundralacustrine core topcount307–14,00912 (2 rejected) + topBrubaker et al. [1998]
S163Idavain LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)58.77−155.95223Alnus thickets, Betula, Salix shrubsshrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S456IgarkaWestern Siberia67.4686.58160  peat core topdigitized %0–90003 + topKind [1969], Levkovskaya et al. [1970], Peterson [1993]
IGLUTALKIglutalik LakeLabrador66.14−66.0890  lacustrine core topcount0–84005 + topP. T. Davis (unpublished data, 2003)
S791Il'inskoeEastern Europe60.0038.38130taiga dominated Picea unknownunknown % 1N. B. Afanas'eva and N. A. Berezina (personal communication to P. E. Tarasov, 1997)
ILMENIlmen LakeWestern Europe58.3031.2318pine-birch forestboreal forestlacustrine core topcount0–11,5000 + 6 pollParra-Vergara [1988], Khomutova [1989], Davydova et al. [1992], Tarasov et al. [1994]
S037Imaiknik LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)69.55−150.8876tussock tundra, Salix, Betula, Cyperaceae meadowsshrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
IMATUImatu mireWestern Europe59.1327.4345Pinus, Betula, Alnus, Picea forestSphagnum, Eriophorum, Calluna, Pinuspeat core topcount509–11,0483 + topL. Saarse (unpublished data, 2003)
TA077Ingakslugwat LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.18−164.1376 mesic tundra with shrubspeat samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
SLJCR137InuvikKeewatin68.35−113.726spruce groves, heaths, dwarf birchforest-tundraair pollen collectorcount00Ritchie and Lichti-Federovich [1967]
S073Iqoq LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)66.83−155.73145Picea glauca forestboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S441IrubeiWestern Siberia69.0070.0050  terrestrial section topdigitized %0–60000 + 9 poll or stratPeterson [1993]
N145_0kIsnestoftenWestern Europe70.1322.9822  peat core topcount0–62002 + topVorren [1983]
ISOETESIsoetes SoGreenland59.97−44.3560Empetrum and dwarf shrub heath with Empetrum, Betula glandulosa and Salix glaucaerect dwarf shrub tundralacustrine core topcount0–94005 + top (1 rejected)Fredskild [1973]
ISOKARRIsokärretWestern Europe60.2222.1316Betula/Pinus (50/50%), MenyanthesMixed boreo-nemoral forestlacustrine core topcount0–39004 + topAsplund and Vuorela [1989]
S172Ithagsutlek LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)59.75−161.7810low Betula shrub tundra with tussocksshrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S109Itkillik LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)68.41−149.92716low Betula-Salix shrub tundra (no Alnus)shrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S603Ivanovskoe 3Eastern Europe56.8038.91150  peat core topdigitized %0–90002 + topPeterson [1993]
icp54JaakonjarviWestern Europe64.7329.03214.2 middle boreal forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
JAKLON_MJack London (Magadan Oblast')Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)62.17149.50820  lacustrine core topcount200–29,0007 (5 rejected) + top + 1 pollen + 1 otherLozhkin et al. [1993]
R62Jack London (Magadan Oblast')Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)62.17149.50820Larix forest lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
R43Jack London (Wrangel Island)Western Beringia (Chukotka)71.17−179.75121high arctic herb tundra lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
R44Jack London (Wrangel Island)Western Beringia (Chukotka)71.17−179.75822high arctic herb tundra lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
S309Jaeger LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)68.39−149.28n/a arctic tundralacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
S147Jago LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)69.46−143.74518Betula shrub tundrashrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S311Jan LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.34−143.54n/amixed Picea glauca-Betula papyrifera-Populus tremuloidesboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
N149_0kJarfjordWestern Europe69.6730.10n/apasture peat core topcount0–30003 + topVorren [1983]
PL091Joe LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)66.77−157.23183scattered Picea sp.-Betula papyrifera and tussock tundra with Alnusforest-tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S198Joe Lake (Parks Highway)Eastern Beringia (Alaska)63.38−148.67838mixed Picea glauca, P. mariana in valleys Betula and Alnus shrub higherforest-tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
JOHANNESJohannes Iversen SoGreenland64.40−50.00100Betula nana and Ericales dwarf shrub heatherect dwarf shrub tundralacustrine core topcount0–86009 + topFredskild [1983]
TA102Johnson River BogEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.71−144.65442 boreal forestpeat samplecount00Ager [1975], Anderson [1975], Reeburgh and Young [1976]
TA045Junction LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.56−149.2624 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
TA046Junction LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.56−149.2624 disturbed boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
icp03JuurijarviWestern Europe61.8723.35125.9 middle boreal forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
F006_0kKaakkurilampiWestern Europe67.0528.93180  lacustrine core topcount0–ca. 95003 + topSorsa [1965]
KAAKOTINKaarkotinlampiWestern Europe61.4225.87104PeatSouthern boreal spruce forestlacustrine core topcount337–10,5175 + topVuorela [1981]
KAARTLAMKaartlamminsuoWestern Europe60.7324.22115Pinus forestSouthern boreal forestlacustrine core topcount108–45074 + topRankama and Vuorela [1988]
S066Kaiyak LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)68.15−161.42190Betula shrub tundrashrub tundralacustrine core topcount0–39,3907 (1 rejected) + topAnderson [1985]
icp05KalliojarviWestern Europe62.3225.53171.5 southern boreal forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
KALSAKalsa mireWestern Europe58.1727.4538Pinus, Betula, Picea forest in SW fieldEriophorum, Sphagnum, Calluna, Pinuspeat core topcount124–10,17712 + topL. Saarse (unpublished data, 2003)
N159_0kKalvikmyra (Jagthusfloen)Western Europe64.4213.82430  unknowncount  Selvik [1985]
S019Kamenny MokhWestern Europe63.5736.42230Taiga dominated Picea moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
icp06KangaslampiWestern Europe63.5326.38154.8 middle boreal forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
KANGERJKanjerjoki [Kuusamo]Western Europe66.1229.00288pine forest with spruce, some fieldsspruce forest, Hylocomnium-Myrtilluspeat core topcount17–84947 + topHicks [1975a]
KANSJONKansjonWestern Europe57.6314.53308Pinus, Betula unknowncount83–12,18112 + topG. L. Jacobson (unpublished data, 2003)
KARASEOZKarasieozerskoeWestern Siberia56.7760.75230Pinus sylvestris, Betula pubescensmixed forestpeat core topcount226–96683 + topPanova [1997]
S429KarginskiiWestern Siberia70.0084.000  peat core topdigitized %0–>900013 + topLevina and Nikitin [1973], Peterson [1993], Firsov et al. [1974]
icp45KarilampiWestern Europe69.5527.23204 birch/pine forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
S279KarolevaEastern Beringia (Alaska)67.39−149.44n/a alpine open forest/tundra transitionlacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
KARRAKarraGreenland64.77−50.58265Betula-Ledum-Lichen heath rare Alnus-Salix copsesshrub tundralacustrine core topcount0–87004 + topFredskild [1983]
icp08Katkajarvi 1Western Europe66.2325.0076.4 northern boreal forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
icp09Katkajarvi 2Western Europe68.1323.38250.3 pine forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
KayaksKayakskoe zajmischeWestern Siberia55.0081.00150  unknowncount0–60005 + topLevina et al. [1987]
KEELEKeele LakeMacKenzie Delta64.17−127.621150tundra/scattered Picea glaucaupper forest-tundralacustrine core topcount0–11,9006 + topSzeicz et al. [1995]
JTA230Keith BayKeewatin68.33−88.17100 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA231Keith BayKeewatin68.33−88.17100 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA232Keith BayKeewatin68.33−88.17100 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA233Keith BayKeewatin68.33−88.17100 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA234Keith BayKeewatin68.33−88.17100 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA235Keith BayKeewatin68.33−88.17100 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA236Keith BayKeewatin68.33−88.17100 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA237Keith BayKeewatin68.33−88.17100 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
TA028Kenny LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.73−144.94383 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S285Kent LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)68.40−149.15n/a arctic tundralacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
TA007Kepler LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.55−149.2127 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
TA042Kepler LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.55−149.2127 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
KEPSKOEKepskoeWestern Europe65.0832.17124Pinusnorth taigapeat core topcount79–91002 + bot + 1 guess (top)Elina [1981]
TA060Kgun Lake, Yukon DeltaEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.58−163.756 shrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
R48KhitshnikovWestern Beringia (Chukotka)71.17−179.17n/ahigh arctic herb tundra lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
S068Kiliovlik LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)66.58−157.25114Betula shrub tussock tundra with Picea glauca and Betula papyriferaforest-tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
KIRKKOSAKirkkosaariWestern Europe60.8724.5084deciduous forestSouthern boreal spruce forestpeat core topcount0–66824 + topRankama and Vuorela [1988]
S038KivachWestern Europe62.2334.0760taiga dominated Pinus sylvestris moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
S039KivachWestern Europe62.2334.0760taiga dominated Pinus sylvestris & Picea moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
S040KivachWestern Europe62.2334.0760taiga dominated Pinus sylvestris & Picea moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
S041KivachWestern Europe62.2334.0760taiga dominated Pinus sylvestris & Picea moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
S042KivachWestern Europe62.2334.0760taiga dominated Pinus sylvestris & Picea moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
S043KivachWestern Europe62.2334.0760taiga dominated Pinus sylvestris & Picea moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
S049KizhiWestern Europe62.0535.2235taiga dominated Picea moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
S050KizhiWestern Europe62.0535.2235taiga dominated Picea moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
icp62Kjulbole trasketWestern Europe59.9823.700.6 mixed forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
KLARESOKlaresoGreenland82.17−30.5745unvegetated or cushion forbs except at lake edge where prostrate dwarf shrub (Salix)cushion forb tundralacustrine core topdigitized %0–680013 + topFredskild [1973]
S067_0kKlockamyrenWestern Europe63.3012.48530  peat core topcount0–83009 + topLundqvist [1969]
KLOFTSOKloftsoGreenland60.05−44.2360Empetrum heath with Betula glandulosashrub tundralacustrine core topcount0–86005 + topFredskild [1973]
TA036Knik salt marshEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.47−149.733 salt marsh near boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S052KojvusouoWestern Europe61.8033.4820taiga dominated Pinus sylvestris moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
S053KojvusouoWestern Europe61.8033.4820taiga dominated Pinus sylvestris moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
S054KojvusouoWestern Europe61.8033.4820taiga dominated Pinus sylvestris moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
icp53KolmiloukonlampiWestern Europe65.5528.15224.2 northern boreal forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
SKS155Komaktarvik LakeLabrador59.18−64.12100  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS156Komaktarvik LakeLabrador59.18−64.12100  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS157Komaktarvik LakeLabrador59.18−64.12100  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS158Komaktarvik LakeLabrador59.18−64.12100  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS159Komaktarvik LakeLabrador59.18−64.12100  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS160Komaktarvik LakeLabrador59.18−64.12100  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS161Komaktarvik LakeLabrador59.18−64.12100  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS162Komaktarvik LakeLabrador59.18−64.12100  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS163Komaktarvik LakeLabrador59.18−64.12100  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS164Komaktarvik LakeLabrador59.18−64.12100  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS165Komaktarvik LakeLabrador59.18−64.12100  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
komaricKomaritsa peat exposureWestern Siberia57.5069.0042taiga terrestrial section topcount0–10,00010 + topVolkova [1966], Volkov et al. [1973]
S012KomettovaaraWestern Europe66.3529.92440taiga dominated Picea moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
F027_0kKonnunsuoWestern Europe61.0328.4550  peat core topcount0–10,00013 + topTolonen and Ruuhijärvi [1976]
KOPPALOKoppalosuoWestern Europe62.2833.65117Pinus, Piceamiddle taigapeat core topcount274–11,0000 + bot + 1 guess (top)L. V. Filimonova (unpublished data, 2003)
icp57KorpilampiWestern Europe62.6230.77176.6 southern boreal forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
S027KotchezeroWestern Europe62.7733.03172taiga dominated Pinus sylvestris moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
S028KotchezeroWestern Europe62.7733.03172taiga dominated Pinus sylvestris moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
S029KotchezeroWestern Europe62.7733.03172taiga dominated Pinus sylvestris moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
S527KovozerEastern Europe63.3142.3380  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
S426KradenoeCentral Siberia (Lena)62.00129.58229  unknowndigitized %0–60004Peterson [1993]
KRASIV2Krasivoe surfaceWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)68.30161.7447Salix, Ericaceae, Cyperaceaecold deciduous forestterrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Y. Igarashi et al. (unpublished data, 2003)
icp20KrokvatnenWestern Europe70.3326.00158 tundra near treelinelacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
KRUG0KKrugloyeWestern Europe66.3737.58140Picea-Pinus-Betula forestboreal forestlacustrine core topcount0–10,0006 + topKremenetski and Patyk-Kara [1997]
RS151Krugloye LakeWestern Beringia (Chukotka)64.50177.1755  lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
icp42KuhkesjavriWestern Europe70.0527.87188 birch forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
PL081Kukpuk LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)68.43−166.2530wet tussock tundrawet tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
icp67KungsofjardenWestern Europe60.1019.830.3 mixed forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
KUNY0KKunyokWestern Europe67.8333.67220pine forestboreal forestpeat core topcount0–700011 + topKremenetski et al. [1997]
S003KuopsujarviWestern Europe66.4729.80275taiga dominated Picea moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
S004KuopsujarviWestern Europe66.4729.80275taiga dominated Picea moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
S005KuopsujarviWestern Europe66.4729.80275taiga dominated Picea moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
icp25KuralanjarviWestern Europe60.4021.878 mixed forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
icp60KuustjarviWestern Europe60.8025.5574.3 southern boreal forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
icp63Kvarn trastkWestern Europe60.0723.078 mixed forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
icp66Kvarnbo traskWestern Europe60.2820.0717.7 mixed forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
S007KwittevunkudEastern Beringia (Alaska)67.27−144.83268Picea glauca and some Picea marianaboreal forest with small burnlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
lao1394Labaz Lake section 13–94Central Siberia (Taimyr)72.1999.58100 low and high shrub tundraterrestrial section topcount0–>11,8003 + topSiegert et al. [1999]
lao1494Labaz Lake section 14–94Central Siberia (Taimyr)72.1999.60100 low and high shrub tundraterrestrial section topcount0–>67001 + topSiegert et al. [1999]
CIELBLANLac Ciel BlancMacKenzie Delta59.52−122.17651  unknowncount−30–10,2605 + topMacDonald and Cwynar [1985, 1991]
DLEF041Lac DanielLabrador58.33−65.25332  moss polstercount00Elliot-Fisk et al. [1982]
DLEF042Lac DanielLabrador58.33−65.25332  moss polstercount00Elliot-Fisk et al. [1982]
DLEF043Lac DanielLabrador58.33−65.25332  moss polstercount00Elliot-Fisk et al. [1982]
DEMAINLac DemainMacKenzie Delta62.05−118.70745Picea mariana-Sphagnum muskegboreal forestlacustrine core topcount−30–10,5005 + topMacDonald [1984, 1987]
ROCHMOUTLac des Roches MoutonneesLabrador56.77−64.82410  lacustrine core topcount500–50005 (1 rejected) + topMcAndrews and Samson [1977]
FARLac FaribaultLabrador58.87−71.72250shrub tundra/forest tundrashrub tundra/forest tundralacustrine core topcount0–38803 (+ top)Richard [1981]
MARTYNELac MartyneLabrador56.78−64.83365  lacustrine core topcount0–60003 + topJ. H. McAndrews (unpublished data, 2003)
MELEZELac MélèzeMacKenzie Delta65.22−126.12650Picea mariana-Sphagnum muskeg/Larixboreal forestlacustrine core topcount−30–11,8306 + topMacDonald [1987]
PATRICIALac PatriciaLabrador56.67−64.68538 boreal forest regionlacustrine core top%−10–54602 + topSamson [1983]
DLEF015Lac TasigulukLabrador58.37−64.03580  moss polstercount00Elliot-Fisk et al. [1982]
DLEF016Lac TasigulukLabrador58.37−64.03580  moss polstercount00Elliot-Fisk et al. [1982]
DLEF017Lac TasigulukLabrador58.37−64.03580  moss polstercount00Elliot-Fisk et al. [1982]
DLEF018Lac TasigulukLabrador58.37−64.03580  moss polstercount00Elliot-Fisk et al. [1982]
DLEF019Lac TasigulukLabrador58.37−64.03580  moss polstercount00Elliot-Fisk et al. [1982]
SOND5Lake 3/4 1Greenland67.02−51.00n/a  moss polstercount00Pennington [1980]
SOND6Lake 3/4 2Greenland67.00−51.00n/a  moss polstercount00Pennington [1980]
BI02Lake BI2Labrador57.12−76.38210 shrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
LAKEBI2Lake BI2Labrador57.12−76.38210 shrub tundralacustrine core topcount0–73004 + topGajewski and Garralla [1992]
LAKEEC1Lake EC1Labrador56.28−75.10250 southern forest-tundralacustrine core topcount0–67204 + topGajewski et al. [1993]
LAKEGB2Lake GB2Labrador56.10−75.28300 boreal forest, Picea mariana, Larixlacustrine core topcount0–63304 + topGajewski et al. [1993]
TA092Lake George (no code)Eastern Beringia (Alaska)63.75−144.75393 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S005Lake JunjikEastern Beringia (Alaska)68.40−145.80698Picea glauca near lake shrub tundra ca. 60 m above lakeforest-tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
KARULake KarujarvWestern Europe58.3822.2032Pinus, Alnus, Corylus, Acer, Fraxinusmixed forest zonelacustrine core topcount556–641610 + topSaarse et al. [1990b], Saarse and Königsson [1992]
KOLMILATLake KolmilaträskWestern Europe60.2820.1512  lacustrine core topcount107–24535 + topSarmaja-Korjonen et al. [1991]
LAKELB1Lake LB1Labrador57.92−75.62200 forest tundralacustrine core topcount0–62304 + topGajewski et al. [1993]
LAKELR1Lake LR1Labrador58.58−75.25170 fshrub tundralacustrine core topcount90–66904 + topGajewski et al. [1993]
LAKELR3Lake LR3Labrador58.58−75.25160shrub tundra, 20 km north of treelineshrub tundralacustrine core topcount0–57003 + topGajewski and Garralla [1992]
LAKELT1Lake LT1Labrador58.14−75.15150shrub tundra, 90 km north of treelineshrub tundralacustrine core topcount0–60004 + topGajewski and Garralla [1992]
TA018Lake Lucille, WasillaEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.58−149.4599 disturbed boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S124Lake MatcharakEastern Beringia (Alaska)67.74−156.19503Betula shrub tundrashrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
NERO274Lake NeroEastern Europe57.1839.4595wetlands and agricultural landscool mixed forestunknowncount333–15,3330 + 2 guessGunova [1972]
NUOCHAGALake NuochagaCentral Siberia (Lena)61.30129.55260  lacustrine core topcount63–57314 + topAndreev and Klimanov [1989]
RS29Lake RS29Keewatin73.13−95.28180polar deserthigh arctic tundralacustrine core topcount250–99908 (1 rejected) + topGajewski [1995]
RS29SSLake RS29Keewatin73.13−95.28180polar deserthigh arctic tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1995]
RS36SSLake RS36Keewatin72.58−95.07160dwarf shrub tundramid arctic tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1995]
S394LakhtinskoeWestern Europe60.0030.1777  peat core topdigitized %0–> = 90003 + topPeterson [1993]
pg1111Lama LakeCentral Siberia (Taimyr)69.5390.20n/alarch/spruce or pure spruce forestnorthern taigalacustrine core topcount0–ca. 17,000noneHahne and Melles [1997, 1999]
icp01LamsijarviWestern Europe60.8722.2050.5 southern boreal forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
LANDRLandruchie MireEastern Europe61.0039.00120fir-pine forestsmiddel taiga zonepeat core topcount353-70591 + 1 pollen (top)Khomutova [1989]
S035_0kLånga GetsjönWestern Europe58.6716.03120dwarf shrubs, herbs and bogspruce-pine forestlacustrine core topcountca. 0–10,0007 + topFlorin [1977], Olsson and Florin [1980]
LANGESOLangesoGreenland75.37−58.6015moss, lichen, Salix arctica, arctic forbsprostrate dwarf shrub tundralacustrine core topcount0–80005 + topFredskild [1985]
S493LaplandiaWestern Europe67.5037.00200  peat core topdigitized %0–<60003 + topPeterson [1993]
latpondLateral PondEastern Beringia (Alaska)65.95−135.93615black Spruce, Sphagnumboreal forestlacustrine core topcount0–15,5005 + topRitchie and Cwynar [1982], Ritchie [1982]
S121Lava LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)65.58−163.9096Betula shrub tussock tundratussock tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
LB02LB02Labrador57.89−75.61180 forest tundra/shrub tundra transitionlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
icp13LeppajarviWestern Europe68.5023.32348 birch/pine forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
LESNOYELesnoye LakeWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)59.55151.8395  lacustrine core topcount0–17,1407 (2 rejected) + topP. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
R60Lesnoye LakeWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)59.55151.8395Larix forest lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
S093_0kLeveäniemiWestern Europe67.6321.02n/a boreo-montane coniferous forestpeat core topcount0–60005 + topRobertsson [1971]
pg12280Levinson-Lessing LakeCentral Siberia (Taimyr)74.4798.6350grass, sedge, other herbs birch and alder shrubs in depressions and favorable localestypical tundralacustrine core topcount0–>18,0001 + topEbel et al. [1999], Hahne and Melles [1999]
S068_0kLidsjömyrenWestern Europe64.3215.23300  peat core topcountca. 0–96004 + topLundqvist [1969]
LGLOPPSJLilla GloppsjonWestern Europe59.8014.63198mixed Picea-Betula-Pinus forestsouthern boreal forestlacustrine core topcount−40–960011 (2 rejected) + top + bot + 1 pollenH. Almqvist-Jacobson (unpublished data, 2003)
LILLESOLille SoGreenland69.51−53.90n/a  lacustrine surface samplecount00Pennington [1980]
LILYAKLily Lake [US:Alaska]Eastern Beringia (Alaska)59.20−135.40230Picea sitchensis, Tsuga heterophyllaCoastal conifer rainforestlacustrine core topcount50–10,71014 (2 rejected) + top + 1 averaged C14 dateCwynar [1990]
S277Lisa LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.71−144.65n/a closed boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S299Little Harding LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.25−146.54n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
ROAGLittle Loch RoagWestern Europe58.13−6.8827bog, heatland and grassland communitiesblanket bog (4bi)peat core topcount0–93686 + topBirks [1973], Birks and Madsen [1979]
TA040Little Susitna RiverEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.76−149.23457 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
LM01LM01Labrador55.63−74.58320 forest tundra/boreal forest transitionlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
LMBCLMBCLabrador55.62−74.60320 forest tundra/boreal forest transitionlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
S008Lobo Lake (also Kuirzinjik lake)Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.38−143.90597Betula-Salix shrub tundra, Picea glauca on uplandsforest-tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
LLDR1Loch Lomond Ross DubhWestern Europe56.09−4.588  unknowncount0–755213 (6 rejected) + topDickson et al. [1978]
icp27LoirananWestern Europe64.5226.70133.9 middle boreal forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
N154_0kLomtjernWestern Europe64.0011.50165  unknowncount  Jevne [1982]
LONEFOXLone Fox LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)56.72−119.721100Picea mariana, P. glauca, Pinus contortasubalpine-boreal transition forestlacustrine core topcount−30–10,7006 + topMacDonald [1984, 1987], MacDonald and Cwynar [1985, 1991]
S159Long LakeKeewatin60.16−155.0593mixed Picea glauca-Betula papyrifera-Alnus woodland with Betulaboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
TA027Long LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.80−148.22453 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S203Long LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.80−148.20533mixed Picea glauca-Betula papyrifera-Populus balsamifera woodlandboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
LONGLong LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)62.63−101.23259low shrub-sedge tundratundraterrestrial section topcount80–55502 + topBender et al. [1978], Kay [1979]
LONGMERELongmare LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)60.50−150.9078 boreal forestlacustrine core topcount33–11,0302 + topT. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
TA034Longmare LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)60.50−150.9078 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
TA081Longmare LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)60.50−150.9078 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
TA108Longmare LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)60.50−150.9078 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
JTA263Longstaff BluffLabrador68.92−75.13250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA264Longstaff BluffLabrador68.92−75.13250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA265Longstaff BluffLabrador68.92−75.13250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA266Longstaff BluffLabrador68.92−75.13250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA267Longstaff BluffLabrador68.92−75.13250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA268Longstaff BluffLabrador68.92−75.13250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA269Longstaff BluffLabrador68.92−75.13250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA270Longstaff BluffLabrador68.92−75.13250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA271Longstaff BluffLabrador68.92−75.13250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA272Longstaff BluffLabrador68.92−75.13250 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
TA019Loon LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.60−149.7576 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S308Lost Birch LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.18−146.41n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
S291Lost Quartz LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.12−145.50n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
S001Lovozero 1 or Lovozero 2Western Europe68.0235.00161taiga dominated Pinus sylvestris moss polsterunknown %00Elina et al. [1995]
S002Lovozero 1 or Lovozero 2Western Europe68.0235.00161taiga dominated Pinus sylvestris moss polsterunknown %00Elina et al. [1995]
S024Lower Halfway LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)66.08−146.93630mixed Picea glauca-Betula papyrifera-Picea marianaboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
LR02LR02Labrador58.59−75.26170 shrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
LS-03LS-03Central Siberia (Lena)71.50128.87n/alow shrub tundra dominated by Betula, Alnus and Salix. Herbs are abundant in more well-drained areastundralacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-04LS-04Central Siberia (Lena)71.52128.86n/alow shrub tundra dominated by Betula, Alnus and Salix. Herbs are abundant in more well-drained areastundralacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-05LS-05Central Siberia (Lena)71.50128.90n/alow shrub tundra dominated by Betula, Alnus and Salix. Herbs are abundant in more well-drained areastundralacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-06LS-06Central Siberia (Lena)71.50128.89n/alow shrub tundra dominated by Betula, Alnus and Salix. Herbs are abundant in more well-drained areastundralacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-07LS-07Central Siberia (Lena)71.50128.88n/alow shrub tundra dominated by Betula, Alnus and Salix. Herbs are abundant in more well-drained areastundralacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-08LS-08Central Siberia (Lena)71.50128.86n/alow shrub tundra dominated by Betula, Alnus and Salix. Herbs are abundant in more well-drained areastundralacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-09LS-09Central Siberia (Lena)71.87127.07n/alow shrub tundra dominated by Betula, Alnus and Salix. Herbs are abundant in more well-drained areastundralacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-11LS-11Central Siberia (Lena)71.89127.04n/alow shrub tundra dominated by Betula, Alnus and Salix. Herbs are abundant in more well-drained areastundralacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-13LS-13Central Siberia (Lena)71.90127.02n/alow shrub tundra dominated by Betula, Alnus and Salix. Herbs are abundant in more well-drained areastundralacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-14LS-14Central Siberia (Lena)71.88126.98n/alow shrub tundra dominated by Betula, Alnus and Salix. Herbs are abundant in more well-drained areastundralacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-15LS-15Central Siberia (Lena)71.87127.04n/alow shrub tundra dominated by Betula, Alnus and Salix. Herbs are abundant in more well-drained areastundralacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-16LS-16Central Siberia (Lena)71.87127.04n/alow shrub tundra dominated by Betula, Alnus and Salix. Herbs are abundant in more well-drained areastundralacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-17LS-17Central Siberia (Lena)71.87127.05n/alow shrub tundra dominated by Betula, Alnus and Salix. Herbs are abundant in more well-drained areastundralacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-18LS-18Central Siberia (Lena)71.87127.07n/alow shrub tundra dominated by Betula, Alnus and Salix. Herbs are abundant in more well-drained areastundralacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-19LS-19Central Siberia (Lena)71.87127.09n/alow shrub tundra dominated by Betula, Alnus and Salix. Herbs are abundant in more well-drained areastundralacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-21LS-21Central Siberia (Lena)69.39125.14n/amainly Larix dahuricaforestlacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-22LS-22Central Siberia (Lena)69.39125.13n/amainly Larix dahuricaforestlacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-23LS-23Central Siberia (Lena)69.39125.13n/amainly Larix dahuricaforestlacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-24LS-24Central Siberia (Lena)69.40125.12n/amainly Larix dahuricaforestlacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-25LS-25Central Siberia (Lena)69.40125.13n/amainly Larix dahuricaforestlacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-26LS-26Central Siberia (Lena)69.40125.13n/amainly Larix dahuricaforestlacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-27LS-27Central Siberia (Lena)69.04124.21n/amainly Larix dahuricaforestlacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-28LS-28Central Siberia (Lena)69.04124.22n/aMainly Larix dahuricaforestlacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-29LS-29Central Siberia (Lena)70.68125.87n/aScattered Larix dahurica in more sheltered locations. Salix, Betula and Alnus also present. More exposed areas dominated by herbs.forest-tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-30LS-30Central Siberia (Lena)70.68125.87n/aScattered Larix dahurica in more sheltered locations. Salix, Betula and Alnus also present. More exposed areas dominated by herbs.forest-tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LS-31LS-31Central Siberia (Lena)70.67125.88n/aScattered Larix dahurica in more sheltered locations. Salix, Betula and Alnus also present. More exposed areas dominated by herbs.forest-tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Pisaric [1996]
LT02LT02Labrador59.14−74.91120 shrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
LT03LT03Labrador59.16−74.95117 shrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
S033_0kLundfors (upper bog)Western Europe65.1520.97n/aSphagnum moss, Ericaceous shrubs, scattered, stundted pinesmiddle boreal zonepeat core topcount0–57001 + topEngelmark [1979]
LUTN0KLutnermayokWestern Europe67.6833.28360birch-spruce forestboreal forestpeat core topcount0–70007 + topKremenetski et al. [1999]
LYNNLAKELynn LakeKeewatin56.84−101.04340Piceaopen subarctic woodlandpeat core topcount280–66308 (5 rejected) + top + 2 averaged C14 dates + 1 guessBender et al. [1965, 1966, 1967, 1968], Nichols [1967a, 1967b]
MAANSELMaanselänsuoWestern Europe65.6229.60248Drained trichophorum caespitosum fennorthern boreal conifer forestpeat core topcount496–99934 + topVasari [1965]
icp07MaansydamenjarviWestern Europe63.8524.38107.4 middle boreal forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
S049_0kMadesjösjönWestern Europe56.7015.8790 Picea-Pinus-Betula with occasional Quercus, Ulmus, Fraxinuslacustrine core topcount0–11,00018 + topKüttel [1985]
icp37MagistervatnetWestern Europe70.4829.06262 tundralacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
JTA238Makar InletKeewatin68.30−85.67400 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA239Makar InletKeewatin68.30−85.67400 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA240Makar InletKeewatin68.30−85.67400 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA241Makar InletKeewatin68.30−85.67400 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA242Makar InletKeewatin68.30−85.67400 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA243Makar InletKeewatin68.30−85.67400 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA244Makar InletKeewatin68.30−85.67400 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA246Makar InletKeewatin68.30−85.67400 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
MAKSIMKIMaksimkin YarWestern Siberia58.3388.17150Pinus sylvestris, P.sibirica, Betula, PiceaMiddle taigapeat core topcount80–91254 + topBlyakharchuk [1980, 1989a]
S508Mal KhaWestern Siberia67.6067.16300  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
RS147Malyi Krechet LakeWestern Beringia (Chukotka)64.78175.5232  lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
MARIAMaria LakeMacKenzie Delta68.27−133.47105 northern boreal forestlacustrine core topcount−30–12,4805 + topRitchie [1977]
S297Marina LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.46−145.48n/a alpine open forest/tundra transitionlacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
S439MarkhidaEastern Europe67.1652.5520  peat core topdigitized %0–> = 90002 + topPeterson [1993]
S027Mary LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)67.17−148.22332Picea mariana, P. glauca, Betula papyrifera with shrub Betula, Alnusboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
TA044Matanuska LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.55−149.2324 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
MAYRAMäyrälampiWestern Europe62.3326.23118Spruce forest and drained mixed forestSouthern boreal conifer forestlacustrine core topcount60–85036 + topKoivula [1987]
S016McFarlane LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)66.35−143.53192Picea glauca and Picea marianaboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
TA084McKinley #1 (R1451)Eastern Beringia (Alaska)63.70−148.95n/a  lacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
TA085McKinley #2 (R1452)Eastern Beringia (Alaska)63.69−148.87n/a  lacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
MCMASTERMcMaster LakeKeewatin64.13−110.58480Alnus crispa, Betula glandulosa tundrashrub tundralacustrine core topcount0–81905 (5 rejected) + top + 3 pollMacDonald et al. [1993], Moser and MacDonald [1990]
S020Medicine LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)65.52−144.53219mosaic Betula papyrifera and Picea glauca wet areas without treesboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S069_0kMelenmyrenWestern Europe63.7012.47430  peat core topcountca. 0–82004 + topLundqvist [1969]
RS149Melkoye LakeWestern Beringia (Chukotka)64.83175.2536  lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
S139Mentasta LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)62.91−143.8689Picea glauca, some Picea mariana, Populus tremuloides, Betula papyriferaboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
TA104Merganzer Lake (R3112)Eastern Beringia (Alaska)60.72−150.6020 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
MEZHGORMezhgornoeWestern Europe66.3730.70190Piceanorth taigapeat core topcount34–85001 + bot + 1 guess (top)Elina [1981]
S140Midway LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.23−142.29549Picea glauca, P. mariana, Populus balsamiferaboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
TA095Mile 19 N, Kenai Rd (3122A)Eastern Beringia (Alaska)60.60−151.30n/a boreal forest/Pacific coastal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
RJM026Mile 98 Lac la Ronge HighwayMacKenzie Delta55.05−105.32594 upper churchill secondary boreal forest regionmoss polstercount00Mott [1969]
TA043Mile 99 Parks HwayEastern Beringia (Alaska)62.14−150.05101 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S107Minakokosa LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)66.91−155.03122Picea glaucaboreal forestlacustrine core topcount0–15,2005 (1 rejected) + top + 1 guessP. M. Anderson (unpublished data, 2003)
S020MinitumbaWestern Europe63.5033.02150taiga dominated Pinus sylvestrisnorth taigamoss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
PL103Minnkokut LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)66.58−151.67155Betula papyrifera-Picea glaucaboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
WESTMire PelisooWestern Europe58.4722.3833Pinus and mixed forestmixed forest zonepeat core topcount91–90675 + topSaarse et al. [1990b]
PETRILOVMire PetrolivoWestern Europe56.0031.98175Pine forest with small shrubs + Sphagnumcool mixed forestunknowncount106–97121 + 2 guessGunova and Sirin [1995]
SAVIMire SavikuWestern Europe58.4027.3230Paludified, Pinus forest (Betula, Picea)mixed forest zonepeat core topcount134–11,11314 + topSarv and Ilves [1975]
SOSVIATSMire SosvyatskoeWestern Europe56.2032.00175Pine forest with small shrubs + Sphagnumcool mixed forestunknowncount306–96841 + 2 guessGunova and Sirin [1995]
DLEF003Miriam LakeLabrador59.55−63.881  moss polstercount00Elliot-Fisk et al. [1982]
DLEF004Miriam LakeLabrador59.55−63.881  moss polstercount00Elliot-Fisk et al. [1982]
DLEF005Miriam LakeLabrador59.55−63.881  moss polstercount00Elliot-Fisk et al. [1982]
JTA301Mistake BayKeewatin62.13−92.7530 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA302Mistake BayKeewatin62.13−92.7530 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA304Mistake BayKeewatin62.13−92.7530 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA305Mistake BayKeewatin62.13−92.7530 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA306Mistake BayKeewatin62.13−92.7530 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
N144_0kMökkelandWestern Europe68.7816.507  peat core topcount0–24002 + topVorren [1983]
S144Moon LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.36−143.54488Picea mariana muskeg with Picea glauca, Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera, Salix and Alnus shrubsboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
MORSO1Moraine So 1Greenland69.25−53.87n/a  moss polstercount00Pennington [1980]
MORSO2Moraine So 2Greenland69.27−53.87n/a  moss polstercount00Pennington [1980]
MOSFELLMosfell [Grimsnes]Atlantic64.13−20.6180 grasslandpeat core topcount0–22695 + topM. Hallsdottir (unpublished data, 2003)
S037Moshkarnoe 1 or 2Western Europe62.2534.0558taiga dominated Pinus sylvestris moss polsterunknown %00Filiminova [1995]
MOSQUITOMosquito PondEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.98−145.54379 boreal forestlacustrine core topcount106–94902 + topT. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
MOSSENMossenWestern Europe60.1221.6017Pinus dominated peat vegetationMixed boreo-nemoral forestpeat core topcount135–22743 + topVuorela [1990a]
icp48MukkajarviWestern Europe68.7027.70129.8 pine forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
MUKKAVMukkavaaraWestern Europe68.9221.00535mountain birch woodlandnorth boreal birch forestlacustrine core topcount0–10,0119 + topEronen and Hyvärinen [1982], Hyvärinen [1993]
S528MuliankaEastern Europe57.7856.31200  peat core topdigitized %0–60001 + topPeterson [1993]
MUNINSOMunin SoGreenland71.13−24.3726Salix arctica-Cassiope tetragona heath with Betula nana, in protected sitesprostrate and erect dwarf shrub tundralacustrine core topcount0–25001 + topFunder [1978]
MUSKOXMuskoxKeewatin71.78−122.67305 prostrate dwarf shrub tundralacustrine core topcount0–70002J. C. Ritchie et al. (unpublished data, 2003)
icp64MustajarviWestern Europe60.2222.757.9 mixed forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
icp61MustalampiWestern Europe60.7524.00116.5 southern boreal forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
MV01MV01Labrador56.94−74.90300 shrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
S648MyksiWestern Europe58.1524.9620  peat core topdigitized %0–80006 + topPeterson [1993]
TA052N. Yukon Delta, Jones' siteEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.17−163.803 mesic coastal tundralacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
NAINPONDNain PondLabrador56.53−61.8292  lacustrine core top%0–90008 (6 rejected) + top + 2 pollShort and Nichols [1977]
DLEF012Nakvak LakeLabrador58.63−63.75260  moss polstercount00Elliot-Fisk et al. [1982]
DLEF013Nakvak LakeLabrador58.63−63.75260  moss polstercount00Elliot-Fisk et al. [1982]
DLEF014Nakvak LakeLabrador58.63−63.75260  moss polstercount00Elliot-Fisk et al. [1982]
TA038Nancy LakesEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.68−150.0859 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS166Napaktok (Black Duck) BayLabrador57.93−62.58100  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS167Napaktok (Black Duck) BayLabrador57.93−62.58100  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS168Napaktok (Black Duck) BayLabrador57.93−62.58100  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS169Napaktok (Black Duck) BayLabrador57.93−62.58100  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS170Napaktok (Black Duck) BayLabrador57.93−62.58100  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS171Napaktok (Black Duck) BayLabrador57.93−62.58100  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
icp31NartsamojarvetWestern Europe68.7526.43205.3 pine forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
S046_0kNäsåkerWestern Europe63.4316.93175Sphagnum carpet surrounds the pond lacustrine core topcount0–>38002 + topHuttunen and Tolonen [1972], Olsson [1972]
icp24Nas'tejav'riWestern Europe70.4729.05235 tundralacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
icp41NavarsvatnetWestern Europe70.1029.8074 tundra near treelinelacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
B48Near Bolvan Bog 1Eastern Europe67.7248.72160Sphagnum peatlow arctic tundrapeat samplecount00Paus [2000]
LABAZ10near Labaz Lake10Central Siberia (Taimyr)72.5299.83100 low and high shrub tundramoss polstercount00J. Hahne and G. N. Shilova (unpublished data, 2003)
LABAZ11near Labaz Lake11Central Siberia (Taimyr)72.5099.83100 low and high shrub tundramoss polstercount00J. Hahne and G. N. Shilova (unpublished data, 2003)
LABAZ12near Labaz Lake12Central Siberia (Taimyr)72.5099.83100 low and high shrub tundramoss polstercount00J. Hahne and G. N. Shilova (unpublished data, 2003)
LABAZ13near Labaz Lake13Central Siberia (Taimyr)72.5099.83100 low and high shrub tundramoss polstercount00J. Hahne and G. N. Shilova (unpublished data, 2003)
LABAZ14near Labaz Lake14Central Siberia (Taimyr)72.5099.83100 low and high shrub tundramoss polstercount00J. Hahne and G. N. Shilova (unpublished data, 2003)
LABAZ15near Labaz Lake15Central Siberia (Taimyr)72.5099.83100 low and high shrub tundramoss polstercount00J. Hahne and G. N. Shilova (unpublished data, 2003)
LEVLESS1near Levinson-Lessing Lake1Central Siberia (Taimyr)74.5898.83350grass, sedge, other herbsbirch and alder shrubs in depressions and favorable locales moss polstercount00J. Hahne and G. N. Shilova (unpublished data, 2003)
LEVLESS2near Levinson-Lessing Lake2Central Siberia (Taimyr)74.5898.8365grass, sedge, other herbs birch and alder shrubs in depressions and favorable locales moss polstercount00J. Hahne and G. N. Shilova (unpublished data, 2003)
LEVLESS3near Levinson-Lessing Lake3Central Siberia (Taimyr)74.5898.8350grass, sedge, other herbs birch and alder shrubs in depressions and favorable locales moss polstercount00J. Hahne and G. N. Shilova (unpublished data, 2003)
LEVLESS4near Levinson-Lessing Lake4Central Siberia (Taimyr)74.5898.8370grass, sedge, other herbs birch and alder shrubs in depressions and favorable locales moss polstercount00J. Hahne and G. N. Shilova (unpublished data, 2003)
LEVLESS5near Levinson-Lessing Lake5Central Siberia (Taimyr)74.5898.8350grass, sedge, other herbs birch and alder shrubs in depressions and favorable locales moss polstercount00J. Hahne and G. N. Shilova (unpublished data, 2003)
LEVLESS6near Levinson-Lessing Lake6Central Siberia (Taimyr)74.5898.8350grass, sedge, other herbs birch and alder shrubs in depressions and favorable locales moss polstercount00J. Hahne and G. N. Shilova (unpublished data, 2003)
LEVLESS7near Levinson-Lessing Lake7Central Siberia (Taimyr)74.5898.8360grass, sedge, other herbs birch and alder shrubs in depressions and favorable locales moss polstercount00J. Hahne and G. N. Shilova (unpublished data, 2003)
LEVLESS8near Levinson-Lessing Lake8Central Siberia (Taimyr)74.5898.8350grass, sedge, other herbs birch and alder shrubs in depressions and favorable locales moss polstercount00J. Hahne and G. N. Shilova (unpublished data, 2003)
LEVLESS9near Levinson-Lessing Lake9Central Siberia (Taimyr)74.5898.8360grass, sedge, other herbs birch and alder shrubs in depressions and favorable locales moss polstercount00J. Hahne and G. N. Shilova (unpublished data, 2003)
NEDNedloucLabrador57.65−71.65330shrub tundra/forest tundrashrub tundra/forest tundralacustrine core topcount90–37707 (2 rejected) + topRichard [1981]
TA113Nelson Island lowlandsEastern Beringia (Alaska)60.58−165.279 mesic shrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
TA112Nelson Island, lowland near TununakEastern Beringia (Alaska)60.57−165.258 mesic to wet coastal tundralacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
NENAZVNenazvannoeWestern Europe61.8133.48100Pinus, Piceamiddle taigapeat core topcount483–85001 + bot + 1 guess (top)Elina [1981]
NICOLNicol LakeKeewatin61.58−103.48348  lacustrine core topcount0–22201 + topKay [1979]
NIGULANigulaWestern Europe58.0024.6755different species of Sphagnumboreal forest, mixed forest zonepeat core topcount118–804011 + topSarv and Ilves [1976]
icp49NilijarviWestern Europe68.8028.27141 pine forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
PL075Niliq LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)67.88−160.42274shrub Betula tussock tundra with Salix and Alnus thicketsshrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S022Ninemile LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)66.52−145.05390Dense Picea glauca patches of Betula papyriferaboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
NIZHNIVANizhnevartovskWestern Siberia62.0076.67n/aSphagnum bogmiddle taigaunknowncount0–10,48310 + 1 guess (top)Neustadt and Zelikson [1985]
icp36Njakkajav'riWestern Europe69.4325.03172 birch/pine forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
NOATAK01Noatak 1Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.07−159.26230 tundramoss polstercount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
NOATAK10Noatak 10Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.15−160.36160 tundramoss polstercount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
NOATAK11Noatak 11Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.90−160.87140 tundramoss polstercount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
NOATAK12Noatak 12Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.90−160.87140 tundramoss polstercount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
NOATAK13Noatak 13Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.90−160.87140 tundramoss polstercount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
NOATAK14Noatak 14Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.90−160.87140 tundramoss polstercount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
NOATAK15Noatak 15Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.97−161.9385 gallery forestmoss polstercount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
NOATAK16Noatak 16Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.97−161.9385 gallery forestmoss polstercount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
NOATAK02Noatak 2Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.07−159.26230 tundramoss polstercount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
NOATAK03Noatak 3Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.07−159.26230 tundramoss polstercount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
NOATAK04Noatak 4Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.07−159.26230 tundramoss polstercount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
NOATAK05Noatak 5Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.07−159.26230 tundramoss polstercount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
NOATAK06Noatak 6Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.07−159.26230 tundramoss polstercount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
NOATAK07Noatak 7Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.70−159.26230 tundraterrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
NOATAK08Noatak 8Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.12−159.77200 tundraterrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
NOATAK09Noatak 9Eastern Beringia (Alaska)68.15−160.36160 tundramoss polstercount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
S522noneWestern Europe63.2131.86200  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
S490noneWestern Europe67.4633.18120  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
S562noneEastern Europe59.9538.58150  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
S476noneEastern Europe67.6645.3120  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
S460noneWestern Siberia66.8366.50200  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
S477noneWestern Siberia61.0069.0050  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
S470noneWestern Siberia59.6679.66100  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
S471noneWestern Siberia59.0081.83100  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
S436noneWestern Siberia69.4186.25100  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
S457noneWestern Siberia68.0087.50150  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
S505noneWestern Siberia64.0088.50200  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
S469noneCentral Siberia (Taimyr)66.0089.00150  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
S506noneCentral Siberia (Taimyr)61.6689.00150  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
S507noneCentral Siberia (Taimyr)57.0093.50200  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
S485noneWestern Siberia55.7575.08100  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
S504noneWestern Siberia56.1684.66200  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
S653noneCentral Siberia (Taimyr)55.8393.66800  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
N150_0kNordgårdWestern Europe69.5718.9524  peat core topcount0–65004 + topVorren [1983]
SLJCR134Norman WellsMacKenzie Delta65.28−126.8530open spruce-lichennorthern conifer forestair pollen collectorcount00Ritchie and Lichti-Federovich [1967]
S045_0kNorrböle IWestern Europe63.4318.2852Carex, Menyanthes, Vaccinium oxycoxxox, Agrostis, Potentilla palustris, Salix, Rubus arcticus, viola, Sphagnum peat core topcount0–390012 + top (2 rejected)Huttunen and Tolonen [1972], Olsson [1972]
NKILLEAKNorth Killeak LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)66.33−164.1716Betula shrub tundratundralacustrine core topcount247–14,0415 (3 rejected) + top + 1 pollP. M. Anderson (unpublished data, 2003)
NOSUONosuoWestern Europe64.5730.83163Pinusnorth taigapeat core topcount349–95001 + bot + 1 guess (top)Elina [1981]
NOVO-USPNovo-UspenkaWestern Siberia56.6284.17150Pinus sylvestris, Betula pendulabirch forestspeat core topcount44–51915 + topBlyakharchuk [1988, 1989a, 1989c]
JTA001Nueltin Lake Site 1Keewatin60.03−99.85170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA002Nueltin Lake Site 1Keewatin60.03−99.85170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA003Nueltin Lake Site 1Keewatin60.03−99.85170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA004Nueltin Lake Site 1Keewatin60.03−99.85170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA005Nueltin Lake Site 1Keewatin60.03−99.85170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA006Nueltin Lake Site 1Keewatin60.03−99.85170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA007Nueltin Lake Site 1Keewatin60.03−99.85170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA008Nueltin Lake Site 1Keewatin60.03−99.85170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA009Nueltin Lake Site 1Keewatin60.03−99.85170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA010Nueltin Lake Site 1Keewatin60.03−99.85170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA011Nueltin Lake Site 1Keewatin60.03−99.85170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA012Nueltin Lake Site 2Keewatin60.17−99.73170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA013Nueltin Lake Site 2Keewatin60.17−99.73170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA016Nueltin Lake Site 2Keewatin60.17−99.73170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA017Nueltin Lake Site 2Keewatin60.17−99.73170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA018Nueltin Lake Site 2Keewatin60.17−99.73170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA019Nueltin Lake Site 2Keewatin60.17−99.73170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA020Nueltin Lake Site 2Keewatin60.17−99.73170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA021Nueltin Lake Site 2Keewatin60.17−99.73170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA022Nueltin Lake Site 2Keewatin60.17−99.73170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA023Nueltin Lake Site 2Keewatin60.17−99.73170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA024Nueltin Lake Site 2Keewatin60.17−99.73170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA025Nueltin Lake Site 2Keewatin60.17−99.73170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA026Nueltin Lake Site 2Keewatin60.17−99.73170 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA027Nueltin Lake Site 3Keewatin60.35−99.70230 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA028Nueltin Lake Site 3Keewatin60.35−99.70230 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA030Nueltin Lake Site 3Keewatin60.35−99.70230 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA032Nueltin Lake Site 3Keewatin60.35−99.70230 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA035Nueltin Lake Site 3Keewatin60.35−99.70230 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA036Nueltin Lake Site 3Keewatin60.35−99.70230 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA037Nueltin Lake Site 4Keewatin60.43−99.63300 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA038Nueltin Lake Site 4Keewatin60.43−99.63300 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA039Nueltin Lake Site 4Keewatin60.43−99.63300 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA040Nueltin Lake Site 4Keewatin60.43−99.63300 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA041Nueltin Lake Site 4Keewatin60.43−99.63300 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA042Nueltin Lake Site 4Keewatin60.43−99.63300 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA043Nueltin Lake Site 4Keewatin60.43−99.63300 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA044Nueltin Lake Site 4Keewatin60.43−99.63300 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA045Nueltin Lake Site 4Keewatin60.43−99.63300 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA046Nueltin Lake Site 4Keewatin60.43−99.63300 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA047Nueltin Lake Site 4Keewatin60.43−99.63300 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA048Nueltin Lake Site 4Keewatin60.43−99.63300 boreal forest and barrenmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA049Nueltin Lake Site 5Keewatin60.57−99.40300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA050Nueltin Lake Site 5Keewatin60.57−99.40300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA051Nueltin Lake Site 5Keewatin60.57−99.40300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA052Nueltin Lake Site 5Keewatin60.57−99.40300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA053Nueltin Lake Site 5Keewatin60.57−99.40300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA054Nueltin Lake Site 5Keewatin60.57−99.40300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA055Nueltin Lake Site 5Keewatin60.57−99.40300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA056Nueltin Lake Site 5Keewatin60.57−99.40300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA057Nueltin Lake Site 5Keewatin60.57−99.40300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA058Nueltin Lake Site 5Keewatin60.57−99.40300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA059Nueltin Lake Site 5Keewatin60.57−99.40300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA060Nueltin Lake Site 6Keewatin60.67−99.33300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA061Nueltin Lake Site 6Keewatin60.67−99.33300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA062Nueltin Lake Site 6Keewatin60.67−99.33300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA063Nueltin Lake Site 6Keewatin60.67−99.33300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA064Nueltin Lake Site 6Keewatin60.67−99.33300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA065Nueltin Lake Site 6Keewatin60.67−99.33300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA066Nueltin Lake Site 6Keewatin60.67−99.33300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA067Nueltin Lake Site 6Keewatin60.67−99.33300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA068Nueltin Lake Site 6Keewatin60.67−99.33300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA069Nueltin Lake Site 6Keewatin60.67−99.33300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA070Nueltin Lake Site 7Keewatin60.80−99.20300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA071Nueltin Lake Site 7Keewatin60.80−99.20300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA072Nueltin Lake Site 7Keewatin60.80−99.20300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA073Nueltin Lake Site 7Keewatin60.80−99.20300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA074Nueltin Lake Site 7Keewatin60.80−99.20300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA075Nueltin Lake Site 7Keewatin60.80−99.20300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA076Nueltin Lake Site 7Keewatin60.80−99.20300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA077Nueltin Lake Site 7Keewatin60.80−99.20300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA078Nueltin Lake Site 7Keewatin60.80−99.20300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA079Nueltin Lake Site 7Keewatin60.80−99.20300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA080Nueltin Lake Site 7Keewatin60.80−99.20300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA081Nueltin Lake Site 7Keewatin60.80−99.20300 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA082Nueltin Lake Site 8Keewatin60.83−99.00280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA083Nueltin Lake Site 8Keewatin60.83−99.00280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA084Nueltin Lake Site 8Keewatin60.83−99.00280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA085Nueltin Lake Site 8Keewatin60.83−99.00280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA086Nueltin Lake Site 8Keewatin60.83−99.00280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA087Nueltin Lake Site 8Keewatin60.83−99.00280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA088Nueltin Lake Site 8Keewatin60.83−99.00280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA089Nueltin Lake Site 8Keewatin60.83−99.00280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA090Nueltin Lake Site 8Keewatin60.83−99.00280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA091Nueltin Lake Site 8Keewatin60.83−99.00280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA092Nueltin Lake Site 8Keewatin60.83−99.00280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA093Nueltin Lake Site 8Keewatin60.83−99.00280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA094Nueltin Lake Site 9Keewatin60.85−99.63280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA095Nueltin Lake Site 9Keewatin60.85−99.63280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA096Nueltin Lake Site 9Keewatin60.85−99.63280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA097Nueltin Lake Site 9Keewatin60.85−99.63280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA098Nueltin Lake Site 9Keewatin60.85−99.63280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA099Nueltin Lake Site 9Keewatin60.85−99.63280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA101Nueltin Lake Site 9Keewatin60.85−99.63280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA102Nueltin Lake Site 9Keewatin60.85−99.63280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA103Nueltin Lake Site 9Keewatin60.85−99.63280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA104Nueltin Lake Site 9Keewatin60.85−99.63280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA105Nueltin Lake Site 9Keewatin60.85−99.63280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA106Nueltin Lake Site 9Keewatin60.85−99.63280 boreal forest and barrensmoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
S825NulsaveitoWestern Siberia67.6770.1755  unknownunknown %  Panova [1990]
S306Nutella LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.13−147.41n/a alpine tundralacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
S152Nutuvukti LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)67.00−155.28213Picea muskegboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
TA058NW Yukon DeltaEastern Beringia (Alaska)62.53−165.102 mesic to wet coastal tundralacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S037_0kÖjamossenWestern Europe59.0814.9859Sphagnum, Carex, Eriophorum peat, scattered Ericales and other shrubs peat core topcount0–60006 + topFromm [1972]
S167Okstukuk LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)59.53−158.2743Picea glauca-Betula papyriferaboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
OLDCAMPOld Camp LakeWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)62.17149.50870  lacustrine core topcount0–56302 (2 rejected) + top + 1 guessP. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
R63Old Camp LakeWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)62.17149.50870Larix forest lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
PL104Olson's LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)66.42−150.50372Betula tussock tundra with Picea glauca and Betula papyriferaforest-tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
ONEGO8Onego LakeWestern Europe61.7234.9233pine-fir forestmiddle taigalacustrine core topcount117–98820 + top + 2 pollenKhomutova [1989, 1976], Khomutova and Elina [1990]
ONGIVINUOngivinuk LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)59.57−159.37163  lacustrine core topcount0–12,4670 + top + 2 poll + 1 sedHu et al. [1995]
S169Ongivinuk LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)59.57−159.37163Betula shrub tundra with Populus balsamifera stands, Alnus thickets, Salixshrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S628Orshinskii MokhWestern Europe56.9535.9580  peat core topdigitized %0–> = 90003 + topPeterson [1993]
S036_0kÖsbysjönWestern Europe59.4018.07n/a  lacustrine core topcount0–>46003 + topFries [1962]
S596OsechenskoeWestern Europe57.5134.83165  peat core topdigitized %0–> = 90006 + topPeterson [1993]
OSTERL1Osterlien 1Greenland69.26−53.87n/a  moss polstercount00Pennington [1980]
OSTERL2Osterlien 2Greenland69.27−53.89n/a  moss polstercount00Pennington [1980]
OSTERL3Osterlien 3Greenland69.25−53.88n/a  moss polstercount00Pennington [1980]
OSVEAOsveaWestern Europe56.0528.08132Pinus-Betula-Sphagnum, CarexOak and coniferous forestspeat core topcount111–11,0001 + 1 guess (top) + 2 pollenZernitskaya [1991]
OTTOOtto LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.83−149.03546Picea mariana on flats, Picea glauca on slopes, Alnus thickets, Cyperaceae-Betula shrub tundraforest-tundralacustrine core topcount17–56812 + topT. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S196Otto LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.83−149.03594Picea mariana on flats, Picea glauca on slopes, Alnus thickets, Cyperaceae-Betula shrub tundraforest-tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
OVRAZHNOOvrazhnoeWestern Siberia56.2585.17110Betula pendula, Pinus sibiricabirch forests zonepeat core topcount52–51401 + topBlyakharchuk [1989a]
TA089Oxbow Lake, McKinley Park, Parks Hwy MP 222 (R1688)Eastern Beringia (Alaska)63.65−148.80n/a  lacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
N067_0kÖy-1Western Europe61.827.38520 at Betula tree-linepeat core topcount0–ca. 30002 + topKvamme [1982]
N037_0kÖytjernWestern Europe59.088.58604Sphagnum, Carex, Eriophorum, Narthecium, Moliniabog, with Ericadsbog with scattered Pinus, Picea, Betula (tree and shrub), and Salixpeat core topcount0–>50002 + topHøeg [1980]
S287OzeraEastern Beringia (Alaska)67.40−149.43n/a alpine open forest/tundra transitionlacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
icp56PaalikkalampiWestern Europe63.2530.67192.5 middle boreal forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
S006PaanajarviWestern Europe66.2729.95137taiga dominated Picea moss polsterunknown %00Elina et al. [1994]
S007PaanajarviWestern Europe66.2729.95137taiga dominated Picea moss polsterunknown %00Elina et al. [1994]
S008PaanajarviWestern Europe66.2729.95137taiga dominated Picea moss polsterunknown %00Elina et al. [1994]
S009PaanajarviWestern Europe66.2729.95137taiga dominated Picea moss polsterunknown %00Elina et al. [1994]
S010PaanajarviWestern Europe66.2729.95137taiga dominated Picea moss polsterunknown %00Elina et al. [1994]
S011PaanajarviWestern Europe66.2729.95137taiga dominated Picea moss polsterunknown %00Elina et al. [1994]
S041Pamichtuk LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)67.78−152.22524Picea glauce in valleys Salix-Betula shrub tundra with Alnusforest-tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS184Pangnirtung FiordLabrador66.08−65.75308  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS185Pangnirtung FiordLabrador66.08−65.75308  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS186Pangnirtung FiordLabrador66.08−65.75308  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS187Pangnirtung FiordLabrador66.08−65.75308  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
SKS188Pangnirtung FiordLabrador66.08−65.75308  unknowncount00S. K. Short (unpublished data, 2003)
S290Parallel Pipline LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)67.08−150.21n/a alpine open forest/tundra transitionlacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
TA037Parks HwyEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.33−149.17869 boreal forestmoss polstercount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S517PasmozWestern Europe66.9535.00120  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
R53Patricia LakeWestern Beringia (Chukotka)63.17176.75121shrub tundra lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
icp44PavvalladduWestern Europe69.7827.0375 birch/pine forestlacustrine surface sampledigitized %00Prentice [1978]
S137Paxson LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)62.95−145.51781Picea glauca and some P. marianaboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S316Paxson LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)62.56−145.31n/aPicea glauca and some P. marianaboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
PB02PB02Labrador55.28−77.7284 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
PB03PB03Labrador55.29−77.7299 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
PB04BPB04BLabrador55.29−77.7099 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
PB05PB05Labrador55.29−77.7099 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
PB06PB06Labrador55.30−77.7099 boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00Gajewski [1991]
tom1Peat at Tom' RiverWestern Siberia56.1784.00100Pinus sibirica, Picea, Abies terrestrial section topcount0–90006 + topArkhipov and Votakh [1980]
N1Pechora Delta1Eastern Europe68.8353.22n/aEmpetrum hermaphroditum, Ledum palustre, Betula nana, Arctostaphylos alpina, Rubus arcticus, Andromeda polifolia, Potentilla palustre, Menyanthes trifoliata, Carex spp., Cetraria nivalis, Cladonia spp., Picea, Larix, Betula pubescensdwarf-shrub, tundralacustrine surface samplecount00Paus [2000]
N2Pechora Delta2Eastern Europe68.8353.22n/aCarex rostrata, menyanthes, Potentilla palustris, Equisetum fluviatile, Mnium Sp., Sphagnum spp.mixed forestpeat samplecount00Paus [2000]
PEDPONDPed PondEastern Beringia (Alaska)67.20−142.07211mixed Picea mariana, P. glauca, Betula papyriferaboreal forestlacustrine core topcount0–12,9166 + topEdwards and Brubaker [1986]
S012Ped PondEastern Beringia (Alaska)67.18−142.07211mixed Picea mariana, P. glauca, Betula papyriferaboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
JTA221Pelly BayKeewatin68.53−89.8390 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA223Pelly BayKeewatin68.53−89.8390 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA225Pelly BayKeewatin68.53−89.8390 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA226Pelly BayKeewatin68.53−89.8390 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA227Pelly BayKeewatin68.53−89.8390 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA228Pelly BayKeewatin68.53−89.8390 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
R59PepelnoyeWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)59.85150.62115Larix forest lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
PEPELNOYPepelnoye LakeWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)59.85150.621040  lacustrine core topcount44–40072 + topP. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
S817Peschanoe (Ural)Western Siberia56.9060.32310  unknownunknown % 0Panova and Korotkovskaya [1990]
PETERSBPeters Bugt SoGreenland75.32−20.0516Salix arctica and arctic forbsprostrate dwarf tundralacustrine core topcount0–13,0006 + topBjörck and Persson [1981]
F031_0kPiilonsuoWestern Europe60.7824.6593  peat core topcount0–10,00010 + topTolonen and Ruuhijärvi [1976]
F025_0kPiitsonsuoWestern Europe62.8330.83148  peat core topcountca. 0–60002 + topTolonen [1967]
S209Pippin LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.72−145.20610Picea mariana muskegboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
PLUHIN2Pluhino surface-1Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)68.68160.2948 Larch-dominated boreal forest and shrub tundraterrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Y. Igarashi et al. (unpublished data, 2003)
PLUHIN3Pluhino surface-2Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)68.68160.2946Salix and SphagnumLarch-dominated boreal forest and shrub tundramoss polstercount00Y. Igarashi et al. (unpublished data, 2003)
RS144Podokova LakeWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)59.95152.10660  lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
TA080Point RomanofEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.19-162.833 mesic tundrapeat samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S602Polovetsko-KupanskoeEastern Europe57.5637.90100  peat core topdigitized %0–> = 90002 + topPeterson [1993]
TA006Pond #2, Worthington GlacierEastern Beringia (Alaska)61.17−145.71661 alpine tundra with alder/willow shrubslacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
TA054Pond, St. Mary'sEastern Beringia (Alaska)62.08−163.25n/a boreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
S004Porcupine LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)68.83−146.42920Betula-Salix low shrub tundrashrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
TA035Portage Lakes areaEastern Beringia (Alaska)60.73−150.5576 disturbed boreal forestmoss polstercount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
POTAMOGEPotamogeton SoGreenland70.95−27.7358Betula nana heath with Eriophorum-Salix arctic meadowserect dwarf shrub tundralacustrine core topcount100–60005 + topFunder [1978]
S030_0kPrästsjönWestern Europe63.8320.1532Eriophorum, Carex, Sphagnum mat surrounds lakePine, spruce, birch forestlacustrine core topcount0–<30003 + topEngelmark [1976], Olsson [1976]
PL090Pretty Lake (Kogoluktuk Lake)Eastern Beringia (Alaska)67.05−156.45122Betula tussock tundra with Betula papyrifera, Picea glauca standsforest-tundralacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
R69Priyatnoye LakeWestern Beringia (Eastern Siberia)61.02151.72980Larix forest lacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
PRIYATPriyatnoye Lake (informal name)Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)61.03151.72980  lacustrine core topcount0–13,5585 (1 rejected) + top + 1 tephraP. M. Anderson and A. V. Lozhkin (unpublished data, 2003)
TA051Ptarmigan Pond, St. Michael (R2101)Eastern Beringia (Alaska)63.50−162.054 mesic coastal tundralacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
PTICHJEPtichjeWestern Europe66.3530.57120Piceanorth taigapeat core topcount357–86002 + bot + 1 guess (top)Elina [1981]
PUNOZERPunozerkaWestern Europe62.8233.58157Pinusmiddle taigapeat core topcount324–11,2000 + bot +1 guess + 1 pollenElina and Filimonova [1987]
PUNSOPunsoWestern Europe57.6827.25183noneboreal mixed forestlacustrine core topcount−51–781112 + topSaarse [1994]
TA072Puyuk Lake area St. Michael IslandEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.50−162.2215 mesic shrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
TA071Puyuk Lake, St. Michael IslandEastern Beringia (Alaska)63.50−162.2112 mesic shrub tundralacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
PYRAMIDPyramid Hills LakeLabrador57.63−65.17381  lacustrine core top%100–70007 (2 rejected) + topShort and Nichols [1977]
QUARTZQuartz LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.22−145.80290mixed Picea glauca, P. mariana, Betula papyrifera, Populus tremuloidesboreal forestlacustrine core topcount28–10,3011 + topAger [1975]
S132Quartz LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.21−145.80290mixed Picea glauca, P. mariana, Betula papyrifera, Populus tremuloidesboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00P. M. Anderson and L. B. Brubaker (unpublished data, 2003)
S307Quartz LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.22−145.80290mixed Picea glauca, P. mariana, Betula papyrifera, Populus tremuloidesboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00M. E. Edwards and A. P. Krumhardt (unpublished data, 2003)
TA120Quartz LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)64.22−145.80290mixed Picea glauca, P. mariana, Betula papyrifera, Populus tremuloidesboreal forestlacustrine surface samplecount00T. A. Ager (unpublished data, 2003)
QUEENSQueens LakeKeewatin64.12−110.57480Alnus crispa, Betula glandulosa tundrashrub tundralacustrine core topcount0–81105 + topMoser and MacDonald [1990], MacDonald et al. [1993]
QUQERTATQuqertatGreenland77.50−66.6522moss, arctic herbs and forbs, Salix arcticaprostrate dwarf tundralacustrine core topcount0–68004 + topFredskild [1985]
S608R KhopeEastern Europe57.1041.63100  unknowndigitized %00Peterson [1983]
R050R050Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)70.75136.2710Larix forest terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R051R051Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)70.75136.2710Larix forest terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R052R052Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)70.75136.2710Larix forest terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R053R053Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)70.75136.2710Larix forest terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R054R054Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)70.75136.2710Larix forest terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R055R055Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)70.75136.275Larix forest terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R056R056Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)70.97136.535Larix forest-tundra terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R057R057Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)70.84136.535Larix forest-tundra terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R058R058Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)71.15136.005Larix forest-tundra terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R059R059Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)71.15136.005Larix forest-tundra terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R060R060Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)71.15136.005Larix forest-tundra terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R061R061Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)71.15136.005Larix forest-tundra terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R062R062Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)70.00135.75100  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R063R063Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.75134.58180  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R064R064Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.75134.58180  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R065R065Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.78134.75180  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R066R066Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.78134.92190  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R067R067Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.67134.83190  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R068R068Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.50134.83200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R069R069Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.83134.87200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R070R070Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.58135.58200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R071R071Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.67135.42200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R072R072Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.92135.58200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00M. N. Evteeva (personal communication to P. E. Tarasov, 1997)
R074R074Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.33134.75220  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R075R075Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.67134.50190  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R076R076Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.62134.67220  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R077R077Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.75134.75220  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R078R078Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.75135.00200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R079R079Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.98135.17200Larix forest terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00M. N. Evteeva (personal communication to P. E. Tarasov, 1997)
R080R080Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.50134.83220  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R081R081Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.72135.58200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00M. N. Evteeva (personal communication to P. E. Tarasov, 1997)
R082R082Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.92135.42220Larix forest terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00M. N. Evteeva (personal communication to P. E. Tarasov, 1997)
R083R083Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)66.50136.50250Larix forest terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00M. N. Evteeva (personal communication to P. E. Tarasov, 1997)
R084R084Central Siberia (Lena)64.00125.00120  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
             
R085R085Central Siberia (Lena)64.00125.00120  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
             
R086R086Central Siberia (Lena)64.00125.00120  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
             
R087R087Central Siberia (Lena)64.00125.00120  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
             
R088R088Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.75135.00150  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
             
R089R089Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.75135.00150  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
             
R090R090Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)64.67141.67600Larix forest terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00M. N. Evteeva (personal communication to P. E. Tarasov, 1997)
R091R091Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)64.67143.17600  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R092R092Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)59.50150.75150  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R093R093Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)59.92150.75300  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R094R094Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)65.50151.00100  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R095R095Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)69.00161.3350  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R097R097Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)60.17151.33500  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R098R098Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)59.50150.75150  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
             
R101R101Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)62.67147.50500Larix forest terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00M. N. Evteeva (personal communication to P. E. Tarasov, 1997)
R102R102Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)60.17151.331060Larix forest-tundra terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Vas'kovskiy [1957]
R105R105Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)65.50151.00100Larix forest terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Vas'kovskiy [1957]
R107R107Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)64.67141.67400 Larix in valleys; shrub tundra in mtns.terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R108R108Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)64.67141.67400 Larix in valleys; shrub tundra in mtns.terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R109R109Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)59.50150.75200Larix forest terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Vas'kovskiy [1957]
R110R110Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)60.00150.17300Larix forest terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Vas'kovskiy [1957]
R111R111Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)62.67147.50600Larix forest terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00M. N. Evteeva (personal communication to P. E. Tarasov, 1997)
R112R112Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)60.00150.17300Larix forest terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Vas'kovskiy [1957]
R113R113Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)69.00161.3350  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R114R114Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)65.50151.00100  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R115R115Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)64.75141.75500 Larix in valleys; shrub tundra in mtns.terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R116R116Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)67.57135.00150  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R117R117Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)62.67147.50500Larix forest terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00M. N. Evteeva (personal communication to P. E. Tarasov, 1997)
R118R118Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)62.67147.50400Larix forest terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00M. N. Evteeva (personal communication to P. E. Tarasov, 1997)
R119R119Western Beringia (Chukotka)69.50173.0070shrub tundra terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Vas'kovskiy [1957]
R120R120Western Beringia (Chukotka)69.50173.0070shrub tundra terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Vas'kovskiy [1957]
R122R122Western Beringia (Chukotka)69.75173.3350Shrub tundra terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Vas'kovskiy [1957]
R123R123Western Beringia (Chukotka)66.00180.00100herb tundra terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Vas'kovskiy [1957]
R125R125Central Siberia (Lena)63.50118.50150  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R126R126Central Siberia (Lena)62.25117.50150  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R127R127Central Siberia (Lena)62.25117.50150  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R128R128Central Siberia (Lena)63.50128.75250  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R129R129Central Siberia (Lena)62.25129.50250  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R130R130Central Siberia (Lena)62.25129.50250  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R131R131Central Siberia (Lena)63.30128.75250  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R132R132Central Siberia (Lena)62.00129.33200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R133R133Central Siberia (Lena)62.00129.33200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R134R134Central Siberia (Lena)62.00129.33200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R135R135Central Siberia (Lena)63.50128.75250  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R136R136Central Siberia (Lena)62.42129.50250  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R137R137Central Siberia (Lena)62.00129.33200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R138R138Central Siberia (Lena)62.00129.33200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R139R139Central Siberia (Lena)62.00132.17200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R140R140Central Siberia (Lena)62.00132.17200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R141R141Central Siberia (Lena)62.00132.17200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R142R142Central Siberia (Lena)62.00132.17200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R143R143Central Siberia (Lena)62.00132.17200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R144R144Central Siberia (Lena)62.25133.50150  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R145R145Central Siberia (Lena)62.25133.50150  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R146R146Central Siberia (Lena)63.33129.00200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R147R147Central Siberia (Lena)63.33129.00200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R148R148Central Siberia (Lena)63.33129.00200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R149R149Central Siberia (Lena)63.33129.00200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R150R150Central Siberia (Lena)63.33129.00200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R151R151Central Siberia (Lena)63.00127.50150  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R152R152Central Siberia (Lena)63.00127.50150  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R153R153Central Siberia (Lena)63.00127.50150  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R154R154Central Siberia (Lena)63.00127.50150  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R155R155Central Siberia (Lena)61.99129.37200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R156R156Western Beringia (Eastern Siberia)71.05135.2315  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R157R157Central Siberia (Lena)63.72121.62150  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R158R158Central Siberia (Lena)63.67123.2520  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R159R159Central Siberia (Lena)61.99129.37200  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R160R160Central Siberia (Lena)61.30129.55260  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R161R161Central Siberia (Taimyr)64.83120.97160  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
R162R162Central Siberia (Lena)63.67123.25120  terrestrial soil and/or surface sedimentcount00Klimanov and Andreev [1992]
RALAKERa LakeMacKenzie Delta65.23−126.42330Populus, Betula, Piceapine/spruce/larch forestlacustrine core topcount−40–51902 + top + deglacialMacDonald [1984]
N092_0kRåggastatjoggiWestern Europe68.5820.00630shrub willow and occasional Betula pubescens, also sedges and heath vegetation peat core topcount 1 (rejected) + topVorren and Vorren [1976]
RAIGASTVRaigastvere lakeWestern Europe58.6026.6752mostly fieldsboreal mixed forestlacustrine core topcountca. 0–10,00011 + topPirrus et al. [1987]
S050Ranger LakeEastern Beringia (Alaska)67.13−153.65820Betula shrub tundra, Picea glauca tree-line nearbyforest-tundralacustrine core topcount0–30,1308 (2 rejected) + topBrubaker et al. [1983]
JTA307Rankin InletKeewatin62.83−91.8390 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA308Rankin InletKeewatin62.83−91.8390 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA309Rankin InletKeewatin62.83−91.8390 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA310Rankin InletKeewatin62.83−91.8390 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA311Rankin InletKeewatin62.83−91.8390 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA312Rankin InletKeewatin62.83−91.8390 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA313Rankin InletKeewatin62.83−91.8390 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA314Rankin InletKeewatin62.83−91.8390 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA316Rankin InletKeewatin62.83−91.8390 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA317Rankin InletKeewatin62.83−91.8390 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA318Rankin InletKeewatin62.83−91.8390 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
JTA319Rankin InletKeewatin62.83−91.8390 tundramoss polstercount00Andrews and Nichols [1981]
S022_0kRanviken, ImmelnWestern Europe56.3014.3081 mixed Picea-Pinus forest with Fagus, Carpinus, Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, and Fraxinus in favored localitieslacustrine core topcount0–10,00020 + topDigerfeldt [1973]
S033RazlomnoeWestern Europe62.4734.4354taiga dominated Picea moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
S034RazlomnoeWestern Europe62.4734.4354taiga dominated Picea moss polsterunknown %00Tarasov et al. [1998]
RB03ARB03ALabrador57.76−76.31120