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Keywords:

  • stratosphere-to-troposphere exchange;
  • stratospheric intrusion;
  • model validation;
  • stratospheric tracers

[1] During the EU-project Influence of Stratosphere-Troposphere exchange in a Changing Climate on Atmospheric Transport and Oxidation Capacity (STACCATO), a combined approach of a measurement network and numerical simulations was used to estimate the strength and frequency of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) events and their influence on tropospheric chemistry. Measurements of surface ozone, beryllium-7, and beryllium-10 concentrations and meteorological parameters at four European high mountain stations, as well as atmospheric profiles obtained by ozone soundings and a high-resolution lidar, were carried out. In order to simulate STT events, seven different models have been applied by the STACCATO partners. These are two trajectory models (LAGRANTO and FLEXTRA), a Lagrangian transport model (FLEXPART), a Lagrangian chemistry-transport model (STOCHEM), a Eulerian transport model (TM3), and two general circulation models (ECHAM4 and MA-ECHAM4). In order to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of each of these models and to identify the reasons for their discrepancies, a detailed comparison with measured data is presented in this paper. These models provided fluxes and concentrations of a stratospheric tracer, as well as the vertical profiles of ozone and radionuclides for a stratospheric intrusion case study that occurred over Europe in the year 1996. The comparison of the model results with the measurement data and the satellite observations revealed that all the models captured the general behavior of the event. However, great differences were found in the intensity and spatial development of the simulated intrusion event.