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Keywords:

  • Asian outflow;
  • TRACE-P;
  • aerosol-associated soluble ions;
  • beryllium-7;
  • lead-210

[1] Aerosol associated soluble ions and the radionuclide tracers 7Be and 210Pb were quantified in 414 filter samples collected in spring 2001 from the DC-8 during the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) campaign. Binning the data into near Asia (flights from Hong Kong and Japan) and remote Pacific (all other flights) revealed large enhancements of NO3, SO4=, C2O4=, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ near Asia. The boundary layer and lower troposphere were most strongly influenced by continental outflow, and the largest enhancements were seen in Ca2+ (a dust tracer) and NO3 (reflecting uptake of HNO3 onto the dust). Comparing the TRACE P near Asia bin with earlier results from the same region during PEM-West B (in 1994) shows at least twofold enhancements during TRACE P in most of the ions listed above. Calcium and NO3 were most enhanced in this comparison as well (more than sevenfold higher in the boundary layer and threefold higher in the lower troposphere). Independent estimation of Asian emissions of gaseous precursors of the aerosol-associated ions suggest only small changes between the two missions, and precipitation fields do not suggest any significant difference in the efficiency of the primary sink, precipitation scavenging. It thus appears that with the possible exception of dust, the enhancements of aerosol-associated species during TRACE P cannot be explained by stronger sources or weaker sinks. We argue that the enhancements largely reflect the fact that TRACE P focused on characterizing Asian outflow, and thus the DC-8 was more frequently flown into regions that were influenced by well-organized flow off the continent.