Indonesian wildfires of 1997: Impact on tropospheric chemistry

Authors

  • B. N. Duncan,

    1. Laboratoire de Modélisation de la Chimie Atmosphérique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
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  • I. Bey,

    1. Laboratoire de Modélisation de la Chimie Atmosphérique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
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  • M. Chin,

    1. School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    2. Also at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA.
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  • L. J. Mickley,

    1. Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
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  • T. D. Fairlie,

    1. Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    2. Also at Chemistry and Dynamics Branch, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, USA.
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  • R. V. Martin,

    1. Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    2. Now at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
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  • H. Matsueda

    1. Geochemistry Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, Nagamine, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken, Japan
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Abstract

[1] The Indonesian wildfires of 1997 released large amounts of trace gases and aerosols (e.g., ∼130 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO)) from September to November. Using the GEOS-CHEM model of tropospheric chemistry and transport, we conducted a study of this burning event, including sensitivity simulations, to estimate the impacts of the trace gas and aerosol emissions on tropospheric chemistry. The emissions from the fires were estimated using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Aerosol Index (AI) data product and fire-count data from the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) World Fire Atlas as surrogates for biomass burning. The model captures most of the daily variations of CO and ozone (O3) observed in the region affected by the pollution. Export of the pollution from the Indonesian region was primarily in the prevailing easterlies in the free troposphere to the tropical Indian Ocean where the bulk of the pollution lay between 20°N to 20°S from September to November. The model's tropospheric CO and O3 columns were elevated by more than 50% and 10%, respectively, over the tropical Indian Ocean in a simulation with emissions from the fires relative to a simulation without the emissions. Another important export pathway was to the tropical and subtropical South Pacific Ocean in the southern subtropical jet. A more episodic pathway occurred to the tropics and subtropics of the North Pacific Ocean. By December, the tropospheric CO column from the fires had mixed zonally and somewhat symmetrically about the equator impacting both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere similarly. The model's CO column was elevated by 10–20% from 30°N to 45°S in December, by 5–10% poleward of 45°S, and by less than 5% poleward of 45°N. The relative impact of the fires was lower in the Northern Hemisphere, as the background CO column is typically higher there. The fires decreased the concentration of the hydroxyl radical (OH) in the model by more than 20% over much of the tropical Indian Ocean through consumption by CO, heterogeneous loss of odd-oxygen radicals (HOx) on black (BC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols, and reduction of UV light by the aerosols. The net direct, shortwave radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere of OC and BC aerosols from the fires was relatively small, as their forcings were similar, but of opposite signs. The net forcing at the surface, however, was large, about −10 W m−2 over most of the tropical Indian Ocean and as low as −150 W m−2 over the burning regions in Indonesia, indicating that aerosols from the fires significantly perturbed the tropical radiative budget. The calculated forcing of O3 was minor relative to those of BC and OC aerosols.

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