Aircraft microwave radiometer measurements at 19 and 37 GHz were made over a 40 km2 agricultural area in southern Ontario on 16 and 23 May 2001 when the average soil moisture in the area was 28 and 40%, respectively. SSM/I satellite data and ground-based measurements of soil moisture were collected over the period 2 May to 25 July 2001. The emissivity of a water body (Lake Huron) calculated from the aircraft and satellite microwave radiometer measurements agreed with model calculations to within 0.02, except for the aircraft 37 GHz V channel. The 19 GHz emissivity measured by the SSM/I was higher than coincident aircraft measurements by 0.02 in moister soil conditions and 0.04 in drier conditions. Vegetation height increased from a maximum of 40 cm in hay fields in May to up to 200 cm in corn fields in July. There was a statistically significant relationship between soil moisture and 19 GHz H data for aircraft and SSM/I measurements in May. However, the standard error in the soil moisture estimate was 7%. Soil moisture seemed to have very little influence on 19 and 37 GHz emission during June and July. When the mean monthly emissivity for the May to July period was calculated from the SSM/I data, there was found to be no significant variation from month to month.