Measurements of the Doppler and multipath spread of HF signals received over a path oriented along the midlatitude trough



[1] The presence of the midlatitude trough can severely impact on HF radio systems since the electron density depletion within the trough reduces the maximum frequency which can be reflected by the ionosphere along the great circle path. Furthermore, the associated horizontal gradients in the electron density distribution frequently result in propagation well displaced from the great circle path. The signal characteristics associated with this type of propagation have been investigated for a 1400 km link oriented along the midlatitude trough between Sweden and the UK. As anticipated, the observed delay and Doppler spread characteristics are strongly dependent upon time of day and season since the trough is a nighttime feature which occurs predominantly during the winter. In particular, the Doppler spread is often large when great circle propagation has been suppressed and reflections are from the north of the great circle path (i.e., from the poleward wall of the trough or from gradients and/or irregularities associated with the auroral zone).