Ocean-atmosphere-sea ice-snowpack interactions in the Arctic, and global change



The discovery of the nature of Arctic haze in the late 1970s and early 1980s [Barrie, 1986] showed that the Arctic is not a pristine environment isolated from human activity, but rather, a region well connected to natural and anthropogenic sources of chemicals by winds, ice movement, and marine currents. Copious pollution is carried on the winds to the Arctic during winter and spring from Europe and northern Asia. The study of this phenomenon led serendipitously to the discovery of ozone depletion chemistry in the Arctic marine boundary layer (MBL) at polar sunrise [Oltmans, 1981; Bottenheim et al., 1986]. In turn, research to understand surface ozone depletion chemistry led to the discovery that it is perturbing the biogeochemical cycle of many elements such as mercury; and that ozone depletion chemistry is likely to have a significant impact on radiative transfer in the atmospheric layer near the surface, with important consequences on the air-sea exchange of biologically-mediated compounds.