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ggge427-sup-0001-m01.movQuickTime video5248KAnimation 1. Temperature field evolution in Model 30a. The calculation has periodic (wrap-around) boundary conditions and incorporates two plates with thicknesses of 0.052d (150 km). The Rayleigh number specified for the calculation (based on the lower mantle viscosity) is RaB = 1.666 × 106 and the nondimensional heating rate H = 15. Viscosity decreases by a factor of 30 above a depth of 0.22d (670 km). The blue isosurface has a temperature of 0.68 and the orange isosurface has a temperature of 0.88. The blue isosurface is cropped at a depth of 0.069d (200 km). The color legend to the lower right indicates the color palette used in the animation. The co-ordinate axes to the lower left indicate the orientation of the temperature field relative to other figures and animations from Model 30a. The surface plate geometry is indicated at the upper left with a numerical referencing system. Plate velocity is also shown to the upper right with arrows superimposed on each plate to indicate the instantaneous direction and magnitude of plate motion above the temperature field. Arrow lengths are time-dependent and are proportional to plate velocity magnitude as indicated by the velocity scale. Time passage is indicated at the bottom of the figure. Calculations were performed on a 16 processor Beowulf cluster and required approximately 1 Gigabyte of RAM per process. Each calculation is computed on a 325 × 325 × 129 node grid and models a volume with physical dimensions of 3 × 3 × 1.
ggge427-sup-0002-m02.movQuickTime video2329KAnimation 2. Temperature contour evolution at a depth of 0.083d (250 km) in Model 30a. The contour interval is 0.01. Contours are shown in the ranges 0.0–0.68 (blues) and 0.88–1.0 (oranges and reds).
ggge427-sup-0003-m03.movQuickTime video5457KAnimation 3. Temperature field evolution in Model 30b. The calculation has periodic (wrap-around) boundary conditions and incorporates four plates with thicknesses of 0.052d (150 km). The Rayleigh numbers specified for the calculation (based on the lower mantle viscosity) are RaB = 1.666 × 106 and RaH = 2.5 × 107. Viscosity decreases by a factor of 30 above a depth of 0.22d (670 km). The blue isosurface has a temperature of 0.65 and the orange isosurface has a temperature of 0.85. The blue isosurface is cropped at a depth of 0.069d (200 km). The color legend to the lower right indicates the color palette used in the animation. The co-ordinate axes to the lower left indicate the orientation of the depicted temperature field relative to other figures and animations from Model 30b. The surface plate geometry is indicated at the upper left with a numerical referencing system. Plate velocity is also shown to the upper right with arrows superimposed on each plate to indicate the instantaneous direction of plate motion above the temperature field. Arrow lengths are time-dependent and are proportional to plate velocity magnitude as indicated by the velocity scale. Time passage is indicated at the bottom of the figure. Calculations were performed on a 16 processor Beowulf cluster and required approximately 1 Gigabyte of RAM per process. Each calculation is computed on a 325 × 325 × 129 node grid and models a volume with physical dimensions of 3 × 3 × 1.
ggge427-sup-0004-m04.movQuickTime video3838KAnimation 4. Temperature contour evolution at a depth of 0.067d (200 km) in Model 30b. The contour interval is 0.01. Contours are shown in the ranges 0.0–0.65 (blues) and 0.85–1.0 (oranges and reds).
ggge427-sup-0005-m05.movQuickTime video4380KAnimation 5. Temperature field evolution in Model 9b. The calculation has periodic (wrap-around) boundary conditions and incorporates four plates with thicknesses of 0.052d (150 km). The Rayleigh numbers specified for the calculation (based on the lower mantle viscosity) are RaB = 1.666 × 106 and RaH = 2.5 × 107. Viscosity decreases by a factor of 9 above a depth of 0.22d (670 km). The greenish-blue isosurface has a temperature of 0.69 and the orange isosurface has a temperature of 0.89. The blue isosurface is cropped at a depth of 0.069d (200 km). The color legend to the lower right indicates the color palette used in the animation. The co-ordinate axes to the lower left indicate the orientation of the depicted temperature field relative to other figures and animations from Model 9b. The surface plate geometry is indicated at the upper left with a numerical referencing system. Plate velocity is also shown to the upper right with arrows superimposed on each plate to indicate the instantaneous direction of plate motion above the temperature field. Arrow lengths are time-dependent and are proportional to plate velocity magnitude as indicated by the velocity scale. Time passage is indicated at the bottom of the figure. Calculations were performed on a 16 processor Beowulf cluster and required approximately 1 Gigabyte of RAM per process. Each calculation is computed on a 325 × 325 × 129 node grid and models a volume with physical dimensions of 3 × 3 × 1.
ggge427-sup-0006-m06.movQuickTime video3257KAnimation 6. Temperature contour evolution at a depth of 0.083d (250 km) in Model 9b. The contour interval is 0.01. Contours are shown in the ranges 0.0–0.69 (blues) and 0.89–1.0 (oranges and reds).
ggge427-sup-0007-m07.movQuickTime video5800KAnimation 7. Temperature field evolution in Model 90b. The calculation has periodic (wrap-around) boundary conditions and incorporates two plates with thicknesses of 0.052d (150 km). The Rayleigh numbers specified for the calculation (based on the lower mantle viscosity) are RaB = 1.666 × 106 and RaH = 2.5 × 107. Viscosity decreases by a factor of 90 above a depth of 0.22d (670 km). The blue isosurface has a temperature of 0.61 and the yellow isosurface has a temperature of 0.81. The blue isosurface is cropped at a depth of 0.069d (200 km). The color legend to the lower right indicates the color palette used in the animation. The co-ordinate axes to the lower left indicate the orientation of the depicted temperature field relative to other figures and animations from Model 90b. The surface plate geometry is indicated at the upper left with a numerical referencing system. Plate velocity is also shown to the upper right with arrows superimposed on each plate to indicate the instantaneous direction of plate motion above the temperature field. Arrow lengths are time-dependent and are proportional to plate velocity magnitude as indicated by the velocity scale. Time passage is indicated at the bottom of the figure. Calculations were performed on a 16 processor Beowulf cluster and required approximately 1 Gigabyte of RAM per process. Each calculation is computed on a 325 × 325 × 129 node grid and models a volume with physical dimensions of 3 × 3 × 1.
ggge427-sup-0008-m08.movQuickTime video4284KAnimation 8. Temperature contour evolution at a depth of 0.067d (200 km) in Model 90b. The contour interval is 0.01. Contours are shown in the ranges 0.0–0.61 (blues) and 0.81–1.0 (yellows, oranges and reds).

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