Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism/Marine Geology and Geophysics
Transient hydrogeologic models for submarine flow in volcanic seamounts: 2. Comparison of the Hawaiian, Canary, and Marquesas Islands
Article first published online: 27 FEB 2004
Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978–2012)
Volume 109, Issue B2, February 2004
How to Cite
2004), Transient hydrogeologic models for submarine flow in volcanic seamounts: 2. Comparison of the Hawaiian, Canary, and Marquesas Islands, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B02109, doi:10.1029/2003JB002402., and (
- Issue published online: 27 FEB 2004
- Article first published online: 27 FEB 2004
- Manuscript Accepted: 4 DEC 2003
- Manuscript Revised: 25 NOV 2003
- Manuscript Received: 15 JAN 2003
- fluid flow;
- marine sediment
 Large bathymetric gradients associated with volcanic seamounts can drive convective flow, while thick sedimentary aprons that typically surround volcanic edifices host compaction-driven flow. In these submarine environments the interactions of compaction-driven and buoyancy-driven fluid flow lead to complex hydrogeologic regimes. We apply transient numerical models of coupled fluid flow and heat transport to the Hawaiian, Canary, and Marquesas Islands to examine the role of volcanic architecture on the evolution of fluid flow and pore pressure during volcanic building, lithospheric flexure, sedimentation, and compaction. The islands differ in edifice size, sedimentary apron structure, amount of lithospheric flexure, and sedimentation and volcanic growth rates. By comparing these variations, we examine how geometry and geologic history affect fluid flow and pore pressure patterns. Buoyancy-driven flow is most influenced by edifice height and amount of lithospheric flexure. Compaction-driven flow is altered primarily by thickness of prevolcanic sediment, the sedimentation rate, and the size of the volcanic edifice. In Hawaii, the area with the highest edifice and most flexure, flow velocities and excess pore pressures are greatest, with Darcy velocities of >30 mm/yr and excess pressures of >7 MPa during the beginning of volcanic building. High sedimentation rates in the Marquesas sedimentary apron increase fluid velocities in the later portion of volcanic building, with Darcy velocities >12 mm/yr. In the Canary Islands, compaction-driven flow occurs for an extended time period because of long, slower volcanic building, resulting in Darcy velocities >10 mm/yr that endure over 5 Myr.