An off-line, numerically efficient initialization scheme in an oceanic general circulation model for El Niño–Southern Oscillation prediction



[1] In this study a simplified initialization scheme, which is “off-line,” is proposed and applied to an oceanic general circulation model (OGCM) for El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) prediction. The initialization scheme is based on the National Centers for Environmental Prediction ocean reanalysis and a two-dimensional variational (2D-Var) assimilation algorithm. It focuses on two basic issues in data assimilation: observed data and computational cost. Compared with a traditional assimilation system, this simplified scheme avoids model forward integration and the complications of acquiring and processing raw in situ temperature observations. The off-line scheme only requires around 1/20 of the computational expense of a traditional algorithm. Two hybrid coupled models, an OGCM coupled to a statistical atmosphere, and the same ocean model coupled to a dynamical atmosphere, were used to examine the initialization scheme. A large ensemble of prediction experiments during the period from 1981 to 1998 shows that relative to just a wind forced initialization the off-line scheme leads to a significant improvement in predictive skills of Niño3 sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) for all lead times. The prediction skills obtained by the scheme is as high as that attained by a more traditional “on-line” assimilation scheme.