• Barrer, R. M. (1941), Diffusion in and Through Solids, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York.
  • Beckmann, W. (1991), Gasdurchlässigkeit von Elastomeren, Kautsch. Gummi Kunstst., 44(4), 323329.
  • Bender, M., T. Ellis, P. Tans, R. Francey, and D. Lowe (1996), Variability in the O2/N2 ratio of Southern Hemisphere air, 1991–1994: Implications for the carbon cycle, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 10(1), 921.
  • Gemery, P. A., M. Trolier, and J. W. C. White (1996), Oxygen isotope exchange between carbon dioxide and water following atmospheric sampling using glass flasks, J. Geophys. Res., 101(D9), 14,41514,420.
  • Holland, L., W. Steckelmacher, and J. Yarwood (1974), Vacuum Manual, E. and F. N. Spon, London.
  • Keeling, C. D., R. B. Bacastow, A. F. Carter, S. C. Piper, T. P. Whorf, M. Heimann, W. G. Mook, and H. Roeloffzen (1989), A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds: 1. Analysis of observational data, in Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and Western Americas, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 55, edited by D. H. Peterson, pp. 165236, AGU, Washington D. C.
  • Keeling, R., R. Najjar, M. Bender, and P. Tans (1993), What atmospheric oxygen measurements can tell us about the global carbon cycle, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 7(1), 3767.
  • Keeling, R., A. Manning, E. McEvoy, and S. Shertz (1998), Methods for measuring changes in atmospheric O2 concentration and their application in Southern Hemisphere air, J. Geophys. Res., 103(D3), 33813397.
  • Langenfelds, R. L. (2002), Studies of the global carbon cycle using atmospheric oxygen and associated tracers, Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.
  • Laurenson, L., and N. T. M. Dennis (1985), Permeability of common elastomers for gases over a range of temperatures, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 3(3), 17071710.
  • Ma, C., E. Shero, V. Nishith, S. L. Gilbert, and F. Shadman (1995), Permeation of moisture and oxygen through polymeric O-rings, J. IES, 38(2), 4346.
  • O'Hanlon, J. F. (1989), A User's Guide to Vacuum Technology, 2nd ed., John Wiley, Hoboken, N. J.
  • Parker Hannifin Corporation (2001), Parker O-ring handbook, Rep. ORD 5700, Lexington, Ky.
  • Peacock, R. N. (1980), Practical selection of elastomer materials for vacuum seals, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., 17(1), 330336.
  • Perkins, W. G. (1973), Permeation and outgassing of vacuum materials, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., 10(4), 543556.
  • World Meteorological Organization (2003), Report of the 11th WMO/IAEA Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques, Tokyo, Japan, 25–28 Sep. 2001, WMO/GAW Rep. 148, World Meteorol. Organ. Global Atmos. Watch, Geneva, Switzerland.