Mining has long been viewed as a pioneer economic engine for developing countries, with trickle-down economic and social improve ments cited as benefits to local populations, especially in the case of large multinational mining ventures.

However, modern experience is proving that traditional approaches by mining companies to gaining public acceptance and cooperation for these projects, as well as obtaining government permits and license, are no longer adequate. Today the realization of the environmental consequences and costs typically left to the host country and communities in the wake of mining, the unforeseen damage to traditional economies, and the disproportionately small and short-lived economic benefits to locals have presented very significant, and increasingly insurmountable, obstacles to building a mine.