Continuous geomagnetic field models for the past 7 millennia: 2. CALS7K

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Abstract

[1] We present two continuous global geomagnetic field models for recent millennia: CALS3K.2, covering the past 3000 years, and CALS7K.2, covering 7000 years from 5000 BC to 1950 AD. The models were determined by regularized least squares inversion of archeomagnetic and paleomagnetic data using spherical harmonics in space and cubic B splines in time. They are derived from a greatly increased number of paleomagnetic directional data, compared to previous efforts, and for the first time a significant amount of archeointensity data is used in this kind of global model, allowing the determination of evolution of geomagnetic dipole strength. While data accuracy and dating uncertainties remain a limitation, reliable low-resolution global models can be obtained. The results agree well with previous results from virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) studies from archeomagnetic intensity data apart from a systematic offset in strength. A comparison of model predictions with the previous 3000 year model, CALS3K.1, gives general agreement but also some significant differences particularly for the early epochs. The new models suggest that the prominent two northern hemisphere flux lobes are more stationary than CALS3K.1 implied, extending considerably the time span of stationary flux lobes observed in historical models. Between 5000 BC and 2000 BC there are time intervals of weak dipole moment where dipole power is exceeded by low-degree nondipole power at the core-mantle boundary. Model coefficients and evaluation code can be obtained from the EarthRef Digital Archive (ERDA) together with animations and snapshots plots for every 100 years at http://www.earthref.org. Detailed URLs for the different material are listed in Appendix A.

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