• Berger, W. H., and G. Wefer (2002), On the reconstruction of upwelling history: Namibia upwelling in context, Mar. Geol., 180, 328.
  • Berger, W. H., C. B. Lange, and M. E. Perez (2002), The early Matuyama Diatom Maximum off SW Africa: A conceptual model, Mar. Geol., 180, 105116.
  • Duque-Caro, H. (1990), Neogene stratigraphy, paleoceanography and paleobiogeography in northwest South America and the evolution of the Panama Seaway, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 77, 203234.
  • Flohn, H. (1984), Climatic evolution in the Southern Hemisphere and the equatorial region during the late Cenozoic, in Late Cainozoic palaeoclimates of the Southern Hemisphere, edited by J. C. Vogel, pp. 520, A. A. Balkema, Brookfield, Vt.
  • Ganachaud, A., and C. Wunsch (2000), Improved estimates of global ocean circulation, heat transport and mixing from hydrographic data, Nature, 408, 453457.
  • Goosse, H., and T. Fichefet (1999), Importance of ice-ocean interactions for the global ocean circulation: A model study, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 23,33723,355.
  • Kiefer, T. (1998), Produktivität und Temperaturen im subtropischen Nordatlantik: Zyklische und abrupte Veränderungen im späten Quartär, Rep. 90, Geol. Paläontol. Inst. Univ. Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
  • Little, M. G., R. R. Schneider, D. Kroonet al. (1997), Trade wind forcing of upwelling, seasonality, and Heinrich events as a response to sub-Milankovitch climate variability, Paleoceanography, 12, 568576.
  • Marlow, J. R., C. B. Lange, G. Wefer, and A. Rosell-Mele (2000), Upwelling intensification as part of the Pliocene-Pleistocene climate transition, Science, 290, 22882291.
  • Nisancioglu, K. H., M. E. Raymo, and P. H. Stone (2003), Reorganization of Miocene deep water circulation in response to the shoaling of the Central American Seaway, Paleoceanography, 18(1), 1006, doi:10.1029/2002PA000767.
  • Opsteegh, J. D., R. J. Haarsma, F. M. Selten, and A. Kattenberg (1998), ECBILT: A dynamic alternative to mixed boundary conditions in ocean models, Tellus, Ser. A, 50, 348367.
  • Pedlosky, J. (1996), Ocean Circulation Theory, Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Prange, M., G. Lohmann, V. Romanova, and M. Butzin (2004), Modelling tempo-spatial signatures of Heinrich Events: Influence of the climatic background state, Quat. Sci. Rev., 23, 521527.
  • Rind, D., et al. (2001), Effects of glacial meltwater in the GISS coupled atmosphere-ocean model: Part I: North Atlantic Deep Water response, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 27,33527,354.
  • Sarnthein, M., et al. (2001), Fundamental modes and abrupt changes in North Atlantic circulation and climate over the last 60 ky—Concepts, reconstructions and numerical modeling, in The Northern North Atlantic: A Changing Environment, edited by P. Schäfer et al., pp. 365410, Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Stammer, D., et al. (2003), Volume, heat, and freshwater transports of the global ocean circulation 1993–2000 estimated from a general circulation model constrained by World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) data, J. Geophys. Res., 108(C1), 3007, doi:10.1029/2001JC001115.
  • Stocker, T. F., D. G. Wright, and L. A. Mysak (1992), A zonally averaged, coupled ocean-atmosphere model for paleoclimate studies, J. Clim., 5, 773797.
  • Tiedemann, R. (1991), Acht Millionen Jahre Klimageschichte von Nordwest-Afrika und Paläo-Ozeanographie des angrenzenden Atlantiks: Hochauflösende Zeitreihen von ODP-Sites 658–661, Rep. 46, Geol. Paläontol. Inst. Univ. Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
  • Zhao, M., G. Eglinton, S. K. Haslettet al. (2000), Marine and terrestrial biomarker records for the last 35,000 years at ODP site 658C off NW Africa, Organ. Geochem., 31, 919930.