On measuring the off-equatorial conductivity before and during convective ionospheric storms



[1] One of the biggest unknowns in the CIS/ESF (Convective Ionospheric Storms/Equatorial Spread F) Space Weather problem now can be measured. Radio occultations of the GPS constellation will be measurable on a regular basis during the COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate) and C/NOFS (Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast System) satellite era. These measurements can be used to determine the plasma density versus height and hence, the off-equatorial height-integrated conductivity.