Q analysis refers to the procedure for estimating Q directly from a reflection seismic trace. Conventional Q analysis method compares two seismic wavelets selected from different depth (or time) levels, but picking “clean” wavelets without interferences from other wavelet and noise from a reflection seismic trace is really a problem. Therefore, instead of analysing individual wavelets, I perform Q analysis using the Gabor transform spectrum which reveals the frequency content changing with time in a seismic trace. I propose two Q analysis methods based on the attenuation function and compensation function, respectively, each of which may produce a series of average values of Q−1 (inverse Q), averaging between the recording surface (or the water bottom) and the subsurface time samples. But the latter is much more stable than the former one. I then calculate the interval or layered values of Q−1 by a constrained linear inversion, which produces a stable estimation of the interval-Q series.