SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Álvarez, M., H. L. Bryden, F. F. Pérez, A. F. Ríos, and G. Rosón (2002), Physical and biogeochemical fluxes and net budgets in the subpolar and temperate North Atlantic, J. Mar. Res., 60, 191226.
  • Baehr, J., J. Hirschi, J.-O. Beismann, and J. Marotzke (2004), Monitoring the meridional overturning circulation in the North Atlantic: A model-based array design study, J. Mar. Res., 62, 283312.
  • Bryden, H. L., and S. Imawaki (2001), Ocean heat transport, in Ocean Circulation and Climate, edited by G. Siedler, J. Church, and J. Gould, pp. 455474, Elsevier, New York.
  • Coward, A. C., and B. A. de Cuevas (2005), The OCCAM 66 level model: Model description, physics, initial conditions and external forcing, SOC Int. Rep. 99, Southampton Oceanogr. Cent., Southampton, U. K.
  • Cuny, J., P. B. Rhines, P. P. Niiler, and S. Bacon (2002), Labrador Sea boundary currents and the fate of the Irminger Sea Water, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 627647.
  • Dickson, R. R., J. Lazier, J. Meincke, P. Rhines, and J. Swift (1996), Long-term coordinated changes in the convective activity of the North Atlantic, Prog. Oceanogr., 38, 241295.
  • Gulev, S. K., B. Barnier, H. Knochel, and J.-M. Molines (2003), Water mass transformation in the North Atlantic and its impact on the meridional circulation: Insights from an ocean model forced by NCEP-NCAR reanalysis surface fluxes, J. Clim., 16, 30853110.
  • Häkkinen, S., and P. B. Rhines (2004), Decline of subpolar North Atlantic circulation during the 1990s, Science, 304, 555559.
  • Hirschi, J., J. Baehr, J. Marotzke, J. Stark, S. Cunningham, and J.-O. Beismann (2003), A monitoring design for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(7), 1413, doi:10.1029/2002GL016776.
  • Hunke, E. C., and J. K. Dukowicz (1997), An elastic-viscous-plastic model for sea ice dynamics, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 18491867.
  • Kalnay, E., et al. (1996), The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis project, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 437495.
  • Koltermann, K. P., A. V. Sokov, V. P. Tereschenkov, K. Lorbacher, and A. Sy (1999), Decadal changes in the thermohaline circulation of the North Atlantic, Deep Sea Res. Part II, 46, 109138.
  • Large, W. G., G. Danabasoglu, and S. C. Doney (1997), Sensitivity to surface forcing and boundary layer mixing in a global ocean model: Annual-mean climatology, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 24182446.
  • Lavín, A. M., H. L. Bryden, and G. Parrilla (1998), Meridional transport and heat flux variations in the subtropical North Atlantic, Global Atmos. Ocean Syst., 6, 269293.
  • Molinari, R. L., R. A. Fine, W. D. Wilson, R. G. Curry, J. Abell, and M. S. McCartney (1998), The arrival of recently formed Labrador Sea Water in the Deep Western Boundary Current at 26.5°N, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 22492252.
  • Saunders, P. M., A. C. Coward, and B. A. de Cuevas (1999), The Circulation of the Pacific Ocean seen in a Global Ocean Model (OCCAM), J. Geophys. Res., 104, 18,28118,299.
  • Stammer, D., C. Wunsch, R. Giering, C. Eckert, P. Heimbach, J. Marotzke, A. Adcroft, C. N. Hill, and J. Marshall (2003), Volume, heat, and freshwater transports of the global ocean circulation 1993–2000, estimated from a general circulation model constrained by World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) data, J. Geophys. Res., 108(C1), 3007, doi:10.1029/2001JC001115.
  • Wu, P., R. A. Wood, and P. Stott (2004), Does the recent freshening trend in the North Atlantic indicate a weakening thermohaline circulation? Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L02301, doi:10.1029/2003GL018584.