SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • ocean chemistry;
  • CO2 emissions;
  • ocean modeling;
  • pH;
  • carbonate saturation

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1. Introduction
  4. 2. Experimental Configuration
  5. 3. Ocean Chemistry Consequences of Release of CO2 to the Atmosphere
  6. 4. Mitigation
  7. 5. Discussion and Conclusions
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. References
  10. Supporting Information

[1] We present ocean chemistry calculations based on ocean general circulation model simulations of atmospheric CO2 emission, stabilization of atmospheric CO2 content, and stabilization of atmospheric CO2 achieved in total or in part by injection of CO2 to the deep ocean interior. Our goal is to provide first-order results from various CO2 pathways, allowing correspondence with studies of marine biological effects of added CO2. Parts of the Southern Ocean become undersaturated with respect to aragonite under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1, A2, B1, and B2 emission pathways and the WRE pathways that stabilize CO2 at 650 ppm or above. Cumulative atmospheric emission of 5000 Pg C produces aragonite undersaturation in most of the surface ocean; 10,000 Pg C also produces calcite undersaturation in most of the surface ocean. Stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at 450 ppm produces both calcite and aragonite undersaturation in most of the deep ocean. The simulated SRES pathways produce global surface pH reductions of ∼0.3–0.5 units by year 2100. Approximately this same reduction is produced by WRE650 and WRE1000 stabilization scenarios and by the 1250 Pg C emission scenario by year 2300. Atmospheric emissions of 5000 Pg C and 20,000 Pg C produce global surface pH reductions of 0.8 and 1.4 units, respectively, by year 2300. Simulations of deep ocean CO2 injection as an alternative to atmospheric release show greater chemical impact on the deep ocean as the price for having less impact on the surface ocean and climate. Changes in ocean chemistry of the magnitude shown are likely to be biologically significant.

1. Introduction

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1. Introduction
  4. 2. Experimental Configuration
  5. 3. Ocean Chemistry Consequences of Release of CO2 to the Atmosphere
  6. 4. Mitigation
  7. 5. Discussion and Conclusions
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. References
  10. Supporting Information

[2] Adding CO2 to the ocean, either passively or actively, affects the ocean carbonate system, resulting in decreases in pH and carbonate-ion concentration [Zeebe and Wolf-Gladrow, 2001; Bolin and Eriksson, 1959]. These changes have the potential to have strong impacts on marine biota [Kurihara et al., 2004; Pörtner et al., 2004; Langdon et al., 2003; Seibel and Walsh, 2001; Riebesell et al., 2000; Gattuso et al., 1999; Kleypas et al., 1999]. Here we predict ocean chemistry changes for a range of cases of atmospheric CO2 emissions, atmospheric CO2 stabilization, and ocean CO2 injection using a stand-alone ocean general circulation model forced with changing carbon dioxide concentrations or emissions, but no changing climate. The range of cases is wide enough such that it may span actual future atmospheric CO2 concentrations and emission rates, and thus could provide a context for marine biological studies relative to atmospheric CO2 emission or stabilization pathways.

[3] It has been suggested that continued release of CO2 to the atmosphere may result in undersaturation of the surface ocean with respect to the calcium carbonate minerals (i.e., calcite and/or aragonite) and that this could potentially have catastrophic biological consequences [Bacastow and Keeling, 1973; Fairhall, 1973; Broecker et al., 1971]. Whitfield [1974] suggested this undersaturation would not occur in the foreseeable future: a conclusion at odds with the results presented here. Haugan and Drange [1996] compared paleo-pH, geographical and seasonal pH variation, and projections from atmospheric invasion and direct injection cases. Brewer [1997] discussed ocean chemistry changes that might occur to year 2100 under an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) “business-as-usual” pathway. Wolf-Gladrow et al. [1999] attempted a preliminary assessment of direct effects of anthropogenic CO2 increase on marine biota growth rates and carbon isotope fractionation. Kleypas et al. [1999] predicted changes in calcification in corals to year 2100 under an IPCC business-as-usual pathway. Zondervan et al. [2001] looked at the consequences of anthropogenic CO2 for calcification by marine plankton.

[4] Aragonite and calcite are the two common CaCO3 mineral forms and are generally precipitated in the ocean in highly saturated microenvironments created by marine organisms. The degree of saturation of with respect to aragonite and calcite (ΩAragonite or ΩCalcite) is the ion product of the concentrations of calcium and carbonate ions divided by the stoichiometric solubility product [Feely et al., 2004]. Caldeira and Wickett [2003] compared estimates of paleo-CO2 change with ocean pH anticipated under a multicentury 5000 Pg C (= 18,300 Pg CO2) atmospheric emission pathway. Feely et al. [2004] predicted aragonite undersaturation for the entire ocean surface for this 5000 Pg C emission pathway.

[5] We performed several sets of simulations to look at chemical effects of CO2 emission and stabilization pathways. From year 2000 to 2100, we consider the single-century IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1, A2, B1, and B2 marker emission pathways [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2000] (available at http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc/emission/index.htm). From year 2000 to 2500, we consider the WRE450 through WRE1000 atmospheric CO2 stabilization pathways [Wigley et al., 1996] and a range of emission pathways with total cumulative future emissions ranging from 1250 to 20,000 Pg C according to a smooth logistic curve [Marchetti, 1991; Caldeira and Wickett, 2003].

[6] We performed several simulations to look at chemical effects of possible large-scale deployment of engineered ocean carbon storage [Herzog et al., 2001]. Many CO2 stabilization pathways (e.g., WRE550) require lower emissions than “business-as-usual” emission pathways. This CO2 emission avoidance can be attained through increased efficiency, by carbon emission–free energy sources, or by sequestration of CO2 [Hoffert et al., 1998, 2002; Pacala and Socolow, 2004]. We perform simulations in which all, 10%, and none of this CO2 emission avoidance is accomplished by directly injecting CO2 into the ocean. These simulations show the chemical impact of this method of emission avoidance and demonstrate, in principal, whether the method has the capacity to store the amount of CO2 needed to stabilize atmospheric CO2 under various assumptions of atmospheric CO2 stabilization target and total amount of ultimately recoverable fossil fuel resources.

[7] Since the goal of this paper is to set out basic results for a wide range of cases, we perform first-order calculations without consideration of climate, circulation, marine biological, land-biosphere, or dust feedbacks. Accurately predicting ocean chemistry involves accurately predicting climate sensitivity, hydrological cycle, and wind changes, and the response of both the land biosphere and the ocean to such forcings. These factors could modify ocean chemistry in ways that are just beginning to be understood [e.g., Sarmiento et al., 1998]. Here, we consider the changes in ocean chemistry for up to a 500 year time period. On longer timescales, one would need to consider interactions with the carbonate sedimentary system [Archer et al., 1997, 1998].

[8] We would expect well-calibrated schematic model results [e.g., Hoffert et al., 1979; Völker et al., 2002; Caldeira et al., 2002] to produce results similar to the spatially averaged results obtained from three-dimensional models [e.g., Heinze, 2004; Orr et al., 2004; Caldeira and Wickett, 2003]. However, the use of a three-dimensional model allows for both better representation of physics and prediction of spatial variation. We would expect three-dimensional models run at higher, but still non-eddy-resolving, resolutions to produce similar results on the scales that we resolve [Wickett et al., 2003].

2. Experimental Configuration

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1. Introduction
  4. 2. Experimental Configuration
  5. 3. Ocean Chemistry Consequences of Release of CO2 to the Atmosphere
  6. 4. Mitigation
  7. 5. Discussion and Conclusions
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. References
  10. Supporting Information

2.1. Ocean Model

[9] We use a configuration of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) ocean general circulation model [Caldeira and Wickett, 2003; Caldeira et al., 2002; Caldeira and Duffy, 2000] to predict future changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and then calculate the effect of these changes on marine chemistry.

[10] The model configuration is identical to that used by Caldeira and Wickett [2003], with a global domain having horizontal resolution of 4° longitude by 2° latitude, 24 levels in the vertical, and realistic but lightly smoothed topography. Isopycnal and Gent-McWilliams diffusion coefficients are 107 cm2 s−1. Vertical mixing is proportional to the inverse of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency with a coefficient of 10−3 cm2 s−2, chosen to approximately recover deep North Pacific Δ14C values. All surface forcings are obtained by linear interpolation in time between monthly mean climatological data. Wind forcing (i.e., momentum fluxes) is from an NCEP reanalysis [Kalnay et al., 1996]. Surface salinities over open ocean are restored to Levitus et al. [1994] data with a time constant of 58 days. Under sea ice, the sea ice model calculates fluxes of fresh water, and no restoring is used. Sensible, latent, longwave, and shortwave components of the surface heat flux are calculated independently using climatological atmospheric data, calculated sea surface temperatures, and bulk parameterizations. The data and algorithms used in the heat flux calculations are described by Oberhuber [1993]. No restoring of sea surface temperature to prescribed values is used.

[11] The model uses the abiotic carbon protocols from the OCMIP-2 project (http://www.ipsl.jussieu.fr/OCMIP/phase2/simulations/Abiotic/HOWTO-Abiotic.html), under which ocean carbon is assumed to be a conservative tracer in the ocean interior and global ocean carbon inventory is affected only by air-sea fluxes and directly injected carbon. The model was integrated for several thousand years with preindustrial atmospheric forcing to a near-stationary state and was then integrated for the period 1750 to 2000 to achieve an initial state for the cases we present here. This model configuration takes up 1.86 Pg C yr−1 for years 1980–1989 and 2.16 Pg C yr−1 for years 1990–1999. This compares with 1.8 ± 0.8 Pg C yr−1 for years 1980–1989 and 1.9 ± 0.7 Pg C yr−1 for years 1990–1999 estimated by Le Quéré et al. [2003] and 1.7 ± 0.6 Pg C yr−1 for years 1980–1989 and 2.4 ± 0.7 Pg C yr−1 for years 1990–1999 estimated by Plattner et al. [2002].

[12] Ocean carbon uptake and sequestration results for configurations of this model have been presented by Orr et al. [2004], Caldeira and Wickett [2003], Wickett et al. [2003], Caldeira et al. [2002], and Caldeira and Duffy [2000]. In carbon sequestration simulations, our model behaves like a generic coarse-resolution z coordinate ocean general circulation model [Orr et al., 2004]. It simulates tracers in the Southern Ocean [Caldeira and Duffy, 2000] fairly well and has reasonable predictions for global ocean carbon uptake in the 1980s and 1990s, but tends to get a relatively shallow North Atlantic thermohaline circulation, with much of the deep North Atlantic filling up with Antarctic Bottom Water. Nevertheless, it does a fairly good job of simulating the radiocarbon content of the deep North Pacific [Caldeira et al., 2002], indicative of reasonable overall ocean turnover rates.

[13] To compute ocean chemistry, unless specified otherwise, we use the chemistry routines from the OCMIP-3/NOCES project (http://www.ipsl.jussieu.fr/OCMIP/phase3/simulations/NOCES/HOWTO-NOCES.html). The original versions of these routines were based on a code by Dickson [1994], but they have been modified by A. Mouchet and others (J. Orr, personal communication, 2004). In all cases, we add changes predicted by the model to preindustrial concentrations inferred from observations by the GLODAP project [Key et al., 2004]. In reporting pH changes and other results, we report results relative to the preindustrial conditions (i.e., a pH change of 0.2 means a pH change of 0.2 relative to the preindustrial concentrations inferred by Key et al. [2004]).

[14] The calculations performed here assume a neutral biosphere. In the future, if the land-biosphere were to take up significant amounts of carbon released to the atmosphere, atmospheric CO2 and ocean chemistry changes would be less than predicted here (for emission cases) or allowable emissions would be greater than predicted here (for concentration stabilization cases).

2.2. Application of CO2 Boundary Conditions

[15] The model was configured to run cases of three types: (1) emission (specify CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, calculate atmospheric CO2 concentration); (2) stabilization (specify atmospheric CO2 concentration, calculate allowable CO2 emissions); and (3) deep ocean injection (specify atmospheric CO2 concentration and CO2 emissions, calculate amount of emission avoidance needed to attain stabilization target; inject all or some fraction of this amount into the ocean interior).

[16] The relations considered in these modes can be summarized as follows:

  • equation image

where Matm is the molar mass of the atmosphere, xCO2 is the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, Fatm is the emission to the atmosphere and Focean is the flux of CO2 from the atmosphere to the ocean. For emission cases (i.e., SRES and logistic emission), Fatm is prescribed, the ocean model computes Focean, and atmospheric CO2 concentration is predicted. For stabilization cases, atmospheric CO2 concentration is prescribed, the ocean model computes Focean, and Fatm is predicted.

[17] For the deep ocean injection cases, we specify both an emission pathway and a stabilization pathway and define

  • equation image

where Fatmemission is the emission specified in the emission pathway and Fatmstabilization is the amount allowed under the stabilization pathway from equation (1). If Gap is positive, some fraction, k, is then injected to the ocean. Setting k to zero is equivalent to the stabilization cases. Experiments with k equal to 1.0 have the property that total emissions (atmosphere plus ocean) are the same as in the corresponding pure emission cases (e.g., 5000 Pg C over several centuries) but achieve the atmospheric stabilization targets of the stabilization cases (e.g., WRE550). We also perform experiments in which k is set to 0.1, which assumes that 90% of the emission reduction is derived from approaches other than direct injection of CO2 into the ocean interior. Note that in these injection cases, Focean from equation (1) includes any outgassing to the atmosphere of CO2 previously injected into the ocean.

3. Ocean Chemistry Consequences of Release of CO2 to the Atmosphere

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1. Introduction
  4. 2. Experimental Configuration
  5. 3. Ocean Chemistry Consequences of Release of CO2 to the Atmosphere
  6. 4. Mitigation
  7. 5. Discussion and Conclusions
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. References
  10. Supporting Information

3.1. Emission Cases

[18] We consider two sets of emission pathways: century-scale SRES pathways and pathways that emit some specified amount of CO2 over several centuries.

3.1.1. Century-Scale SRES Pathways

[19] The first set of cases (Figure 1b) is CO2 emissions from the IPCC SRES A1, A2, B1, and B2 marker pathways for years 2000 to 2100 [IPCC, 2000]. These CO2 emission pathways were developed based on different assumptions regarding global development over the rest of this century. The A1 storyline foresees rapid economic development in both developing and developed countries with convergence between poor and rich countries. The A2 storyline has the largest CO2 emissions, envisioning a world that has large regional differences in rates of technological change, energy technologies, approaches to agriculture, and access to mineral resources. In contrast, the B1 storyline has the least CO2 emissions, assuming a world with a globally coherent approach to sustainable development with a high level of environmental and social consciousness. The B2 world is like a less successful B1, with less technological advancement and greater regional differences in rates of development. The CO2 emissions in these pathways include net CO2 emissions from land use change.

image

Figure 1. (a) CO2 emissions scenarios releasing from 1250 to 20,000 Pg C (4580–73,300 Pg CO2) to the atmosphere after year 2000 according to a smooth curve described by equation (3). (b) CO2 emissions specified for the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1, A2, B1, and B2 pathways and allowable emissions calculated with our ocean model from WRE CO2 stabilization scenarios. (c) Atmospheric CO2 contents predicted by our model for the emission pathways shown in Figure 1a. (d) Atmospheric CO2 predicted for the SRES emission pathways and specified for the WRE stabilization scenarios.

Download figure to PowerPoint

[20] We used the model to simulate 100 years for each of the SRES pathways. Predicted atmospheric CO2 concentrations are shown in Figure 1d and Table 1. Predicted changes in surface ocean pH and calcite and aragonite saturation state are shown in Figure 2 (horizontal means), and Figure 3 (zonal means). The lowest emission SRES pathway considered here (B1) produces global surface pH reductions of about 0.3 pH units by year 2100, whereas the highest emission pathway considered (A2) produces global surface pH reductions approaching 0.5 pH units by year 2100 (Figures 2 and 3). In our simulations, all of the SRES pathways produced aragonite undersaturation in the surface Southern Ocean by year 2100 (Figure 3).

image

Figure 2. (a) Surface ocean pH and (b) calcite (ΩCalcite) and aragonite (ΩAragonite) saturation state starting from horizontal mean observed concentrations [Key et al., 2004] with concentration changes applied from the three-dimensional ocean model simulations. Dashed lines show calcite and aragonite saturation.

Download figure to PowerPoint

image

Figure 3. Predicted surface ocean pH change and calcite (ΩCalcite) and aragonite (ΩAragonite) saturation state in (top) year 2100 for the SRES emission pathways and (bottom) year 2300 for the “logistic” emission pathways. Preindustrial and year 2000 values are calculated from Key et al. [2004]. Chemistry changes are computed from zonal mean average concentrations in the three-dimensional ocean model. Dashed lines show calcite and aragonite saturation.

Download figure to PowerPoint

Table 1. Mean Surface Ocean Results for Simulated Years 2100 and 2300
CaseAtmospheric CO2 Concentration, ppmSurface Ocean ΔpHΩCalciteΩAragonite
Preindustrial280equation image5.23.4
Year 2000370−0.094.42.9
 
IPCC SRES Pathways, Year 2100
B2820−0.392.51.6
A2970−0.462.11.4
B1650−0.303.01.9
A1710−0.342.81.8
 
“Logistic” Pathways, Years 2100/2300
1250 Pg C660/600−0.31/−0.282.9/3.11.9/2.0
2500 Pg C860/1020−0.41/−0.492.4/2.01.5/1.3
5000 Pg C1070/1980−0.50/−0.772.0/1.11.3/0.7
10,000 Pg C1240/4030−0.56/−1.071.7/0.61.1/0.4
20,000 Pg C1350/8110−0.60/−1.371.6/0.31.0/0.2
 
Stabilization Pathways, Years 2100/2300
WRE450450/450−0.17/−0.173.8/2.52.5/2.5
WRE550540/550−0.23/−0.243.4/2.22.2/2.2
WRE650600/650−0.27/−0.313.1/2.02.0/1.9
WRE750640/750−0.29/−0.363.0/2.02.0/1.7
WRE1000680/990−0.32/−0.472.9/1.91.9/1.4
3.1.2. Multicentury “Logistic” Emission Pathways

[21] For the second set of emission pathways, we develop a set of smooth CO2 emission curves releasing specified amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere over the next several centuries. In this set of emission pathways, starting in year 2000, CO2 emissions (dF/dt) and fossil fuel resources (F) are assumed to follow the logistic equation

  • equation image

We examine cases varying the value of the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere after year 2000, F(2000). We assume F(1750) = F(2000) + 270 Pg C (= 990 Pg CO2) (G. Marland et al., unpublished data, 2002) (available at http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/emis/tre_glob.htm), and adjust a such that dF/dt = 6.8 Pg C in year 2000. The IPCC [2001] estimates global fossil fuel resources to be roughly 5000 Pg C. Therefore we consider our base case to be 5000 Pg C(= 18,300 Pg CO2) released to the atmosphere as CO2 over several centuries. Given that typically only half of the reduced carbon is recovered in fossil fuel mining operations and there is a continuum of lower-grade carbon-rich shales, it is conceivable, given changing technology and economics, eventual fossil fuel recovery on land could reach 10,000 Pg C. Methane hydrates on continental shelves have been estimated to contain another 10,000 Pg C; if this were recovered, then total amounts of fossil fuel carbon would reach 20,000 Pg C. On the other hand, climate concerns could result in diminished release of fossil fuel carbon to the atmosphere, with the remainder of the fossil fuel resources permanently isolated from the atmosphere. Thus we examine cases in which from 1/4 to 4 times currently estimated fossil fuel carbon is released to the atmosphere as CO2 over the next several centuries. We refer to these as “logistic” CO2 emission pathways.

[22] Figure 1 shows the “logistic” CO2 emission pathways with integrated emissions after year 2000 ranging from 1250 to 20,000 Pg C. We used our ocean model to simulate changes in ocean chemistry during 500 years of emissions under these pathways. Emission of 1250 Pg C produces an average surface ocean pH decrease of nearly 0.3 units by year 2300, whereas emission of 20,000 Pg C decreases surface pH by about 1.4 units. Emission of 5000 Pg C according to this scenario decreases surface ocean pH by about 0.8 pH units by 2300. Carbon absorbed by the ocean from the atmosphere initially affects the upper ocean, but is then mixed down into the ocean interior. Because the pH of the upper thermocline is naturally lower than that of the surface waters, it is more sensitive to added carbon. Thus the greatest change in pH over the course of the simulation occurs several hundred meters below the ocean surface (Figure 4), even though the highest anthropogenic carbon concentrations are at the surface.

image

Figure 4. Predicted horizontal mean ocean pH as a function of depth and time for the “logistic” CO2 emission pathways and WRE stabilization pathways. Chemistry changes starting from Key et al. [2004] are computed from horizontal mean concentrations in the three-dimensional ocean model simulations.

Download figure to PowerPoint

[23] By year 2300, the cases in which 10,000 Pg C and 20,000 Pg C are released to the atmosphere result in undersaturation of the surface ocean with respect to both calcite and aragonite. Emission of 1250 Pg C and 2500 Pg C produce surface waters that are saturated (on average) with respect to calcite but undersaturated with respect to aragonite (Figure 2). Emission of 5000 Pg C produces surface ocean waters that are saturated with respect to aragonite only near the equator and undersaturated with respect to calcite at high latitudes (Figure 3).

[24] Today, horizontally averaged seawater composition is saturated with respect to calcite from the surface of the ocean to a depth greater than 3 km (Figure 5). In all of the “logistic” emission cases considered here, the calcite lysocline shoals from deeper than 3 km to shallower than 1 km. For cases that cumulatively emit 2500 Pg C or more, the calcite lysocline shoals to within a few hundred meters of the surface. In the transition, four layers can form from the top to the bottom that alternate with respect to calcite saturation, i.e., a surface layer that is calcite-saturated overlying a calcite-undersaturated layer in the thermocline, which in turn overlies a calcite-saturated layer centered at about 1.5 km depth overlying an undersaturated deep ocean (Figure 5a; see, for example, the 1250 Pg C case at year 2200).

image

Figure 5. Changes in the depth of the calcite lysocline for (a) “logistic” emission pathways and (b) WRE stabilization pathways. The calcite lysocline represents the boundary between water that is saturated with respect to calcite and water that is undersaturated with respect to calcite. Today, the upper ocean is calcite saturated. Chemistry changes, starting from Key et al. [2004], are calculated from horizontal mean concentrations in the three-dimensional ocean model simulation.

Download figure to PowerPoint

3.2. Stabilization Cases

[25] Figure 1 shows the WRE450, WRE550, WRE650, WRE750, and WRE1000 atmospheric CO2 stabilization pathways [Wigley et al., 1996]. These pathways are designed to follow a “business-as-usual” trajectory prior to transition to stable atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We use these pathways to address the question of ocean chemical consequences of atmospheric CO2 stabilization.

[26] We used the model to simulate 500 years for each of the WRE450 through WRE1000 stabilization pathways. Computed atmospheric CO2 emissions consistent with these stabilization pathways are shown in Figure 1. Changes in ocean pH and calcite and aragonite saturations states, based on mean changes in surface ocean chemistry, are shown in Figure 2. On a global mean basis, the WRE650 pathway produces a surface ocean with a pH more than 0.3 units lower than the preindustrial value. The WRE1000 pathway depresses surface ocean pH by about 0.5 pH units. On a global mean basis, surface waters remain saturated with respect to both calcite and aragonite in these simulations. However, the Southern Ocean eventually becomes undersaturated with respect to aragonite in the Southern Ocean in the WRE650, WRE750, and WRE1000 simulations. Predicted changes in surface ocean pH and calcite and aragonite saturation states, based on zonal mean changes in dissolved inorganic carbon, are shown for year 2100 and year 2300 in Figure 6. Changes in ocean pH in depth and time, based on horizontal mean changes in dissolved inorganic carbon, are shown in Figure 4. In the WRE stabilization pathways that stabilize at 550 ppm, the calcite lysocline, computed from horizontal mean concentration changes, shoals from deeper than 3 km to shallower than 1 km (Figure 5b). Even with 450 ppm stabilization, most of the ocean volume becomes undersaturated with respect to calcite.

image

Figure 6. Predicted surface ocean pH change and calcite (ΩCalcite) and aragonite (ΩAragonite) saturation state in (top) year 2100 and (bottom) year 2300 for WRE atmospheric CO2 concentration stabilization pathways. Chemistry calculations are based on zonal mean concentrations from three-dimensional ocean model simulations described in the text. Preindustrial and year 2000 values are calculated from Key et al. [2004].

Download figure to PowerPoint

4. Mitigation

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1. Introduction
  4. 2. Experimental Configuration
  5. 3. Ocean Chemistry Consequences of Release of CO2 to the Atmosphere
  6. 4. Mitigation
  7. 5. Discussion and Conclusions
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. References
  10. Supporting Information

4.1. Deep Ocean CO2 Injection

[27] The difference between a given emission pathway and the emissions allowable under an atmospheric CO2 stabilization pathway could be thought of as a carbon gap that would need to be made up by increased carbon storage in biologic, geologic, or oceanic reservoirs (and/or by renewables, improved efficiency, nuclear, etc.) [Hoffert et al., 1998, 2002; Pacala and Socolow, 2004]. We performed simulations in which the allowable CO2 emissions to the atmosphere take into consideration the stabilization targets and the degassing to the atmosphere of some carbon earlier injected to the deep ocean (see section 2.2). When CO2 is injected into the ocean in our simulations, we use the seven sites specified in OCMIP (Figure 7) and a nominal depth of 3 km. (Owing to limitation of the model grid, it is effectively distributed uniformly between 2708 m and 3060 m.) We do not consider energy penalties associated with deep ocean CO2 injection; thus, in the cases presented here, because energy would be needed for deep ocean injection, less energy would be available for other services in the injection cases than in the atmospheric release case.

image

Figure 7. Injection locations. Blue represents ocean seafloor deeper than 3 km [Smith and Sandwell, 1997]. Colors on land represent distance to water deeper than 3 km. Coastal areas near deep water and CO2 sources likely would be preferred locations for direct injection of CO2 into the deep ocean.

Download figure to PowerPoint

[28] We consider the 5000 Pg C emission pathway and the WRE550 stabilization pathway (Figure 1) to be our central cases. We consider cases in which deep ocean CO2 injection provides 100% or 10% of the mitigation effort needed to stabilize CO2 at 550 ppm, assuming that the 5000 Pg C emission pathway represents a “business-as-usual” trajectory. If ever deployed, intentional ocean carbon storage would probably play a role as a part of a broader portfolio of approaches to climate mitigations [Caldeira et al., 2004]. Thus the case in which ocean carbon storage provides 10% of the total mitigation effort required might be considered a “realistic” case in which intentional ocean carbon storage plays a significant, but not dominant, role in climate stabilization. The 100% oceanic injection case allows direct comparison of the effects of atmospheric release versus oceanic release.

[29] Using equations (1)(3) above, we calculated the rate of ocean carbon injection needed to stabilize CO2 according to the WRE550 pathway (Figure 8). In the case where ocean injection provides 100% of the mitigation effort (k = 1; see section 2.2), the total amount of carbon introduced to the ocean plus atmosphere equal to that of the 5000 Pg C emission pathway.). In the case where ocean injection provides 10% of the mitigation effort (k = 0.1), the total amount of carbon introduced to the ocean plus atmosphere is less that of the 5000 Pg C emission pathway because other approaches are assumed to provide 90% of the required mitigation. In these cases, deep ocean injection rates reach a maximum early in the 22nd century.

image

Figure 8. Emissions and abatement associated with achieving WRE550 atmospheric CO2 stabilization starting from a 5000 Pg C(= 18,300 Pg CO2) atmospheric CO2 emission scenario: (a) emission to the atmosphere, (b) injection to the deep ocean, and (c) emissions abatement assumed to be provided by approaches other than direct CO2 injection in the deep ocean. In each panel the black line represents a trajectory to emit 5000 Pg C of fossil fuel carbon over several centuries according to a smooth logistic curve described in the text; the green line represents emissions for CO2 stabilization at 550 ppm according to the Wigley et al. [1995] pathway (this line is often hidden behind the blue line); the red line represents emissions changes that would be needed if ocean injection made up 100% of the carbon emissions avoidance; and the blue line represents emissions changes that would be needed if ocean injection made up 10% of emission avoidance, with 90% of avoidance coming from other means.

Download figure to PowerPoint

[30] For the 100% deep ocean injection case, allowable atmospheric emissions become negative by year 2200 (Figure 8). This is because CO2 that had been injected into the deep ocean is escaping to the atmosphere at a rate that exceeds the atmospheric CO2 emission rate allowed under the WRE550 stabilization pathway. This indicates that, even in principal, direct injection of CO2 into the deep ocean would not be able to provide 100% of the required mitigation effort, but would need to be combined with some form of removal of CO2 from the atmosphere [Keith and Ha-Duong, 2003]. In contrast, in the case where deep ocean injection provides 10% of the mitigation effort, in year 2500, atmospheric evasion of previously injected CO2 is 0.3 Pg C yr−1, less than the 0.9 Pg C yr−1 allowed under the WRE550 stabilization pathway. Thus degassing of previously injected CO2 would diminish future CO2 emissions allowed from other sources, but would not require active removal of CO2 from the atmosphere.

[31] Direct injection of CO2 into the ocean interior can produce regions with higher dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations than would occur with atmospheric release. CO2 injected into the ocean interior is retained in the poorly ventilated isopycnal layers of the deep ocean but is lost to the atmosphere from the well-ventilated layers of the upper thermocline. Changes in ocean pH, based on horizontal mean ocean composition, are shown in Figure 9 for the cases described here. For the simulation in which deep ocean injection provides 100% of the mitigation effort, deep ocean pH values are much lower than in the WRE550 simulation, however, surface ocean pH values are nearly the same as in the WRE550 simulation.

image

Figure 9. Changes in ocean pH predicted to occur if ocean carbon storage is used to stabilize CO2 according to the WRE550 stabilization trajectory given total CO2 emissions from the “logistic” 5000 Pg C (= 18,300 Pg CO2) scenario. Ocean pH changes resulting from (a) atmospheric emission of 5000 Pg C (see Figure 4); (b) WRE550 atmospheric CO2 pathway with injection at 3 km at 100% of the rate required to maintain total CO2 release rate equal to that in Figure 9a; (c) WRE550 atmospheric CO2 pathway with injection at 3 km at 10% of the rate required to maintaining total CO2 release rate equal to that in Figure 9a; and (d) the WRE550 atmospheric CO2 pathway (see Figure 4).

Download figure to PowerPoint

[32] Volumes of water undergoing different changes in ocean pH, for years 2100 and 2300, are shown if Figure 10. If ocean injection were to provide 10% of the total abatement required, by year 2100, on the order of 1% of the ocean would have a large pH change relative to pH changes produced by the WRE550 pathway; by year 2300, this signal would spread out, so that most of the ocean would be roughly 0.1 pH unit lower than had the CO2 emissions been abated without the use of the oceans. If ocean injection were to provide 100% of the total abatement required, on the order of 10% of the ocean would have a large pH change relative to pH changes produced by the WRE550 pathway; by year 2300, this signal would spread out, and most of the ocean would have a pH more than 0.5 unit lower than had the CO2 emissions been abated without the use of the oceans. Ocean CO2 injection could be engineered to disperse the carbon through a large range of depths in the deep ocean, and this would reduce the maximum change in horizontal mean ocean chemistry.

image

Figure 10. Fraction of ocean volume (between 60°N and 60°S) with a pH change greater than some specified amount in (a) year 2100 and (b) year 2300 for the cases shown in Figures 8 and 9. Lines are as follows: “5000 Pg C” shows predicted pH consequences of releasing 5000 Pg C of fossil fuel carbon to the atmosphere over several centuries according to a smooth curve described in the text; “WRE550” shows ocean pH changes predicted to result from CO2 stabilization at 550 ppm according to the WRE550 pathway; “100%” shows ocean pH changes that would be expected if ocean injection made up 100% of the carbon emissions avoidance; and “10%” shows ocean pH changes that would be expected if ocean injection made up 10% of emission avoidance, with 90% of avoidance coming from other means.

Download figure to PowerPoint

4.2. Dissolution of Carbonate Minerals

[33] It has been suggested [Kheshgi, 1995; Rau and Caldeira, 1999; Caldeira and Rau, 2000] that chemical effects of CO2 addition to the ocean could be mitigated by the introduction of alkalinity to the oceans. Because of its abundance, CaCO3 is the most likely source of this alkalinity. Figure 11 shows how surface ocean pCO2, pH, and [COB32−] would change for different amounts of added CO2 and different amounts of dissolved CaCO3 per unit added CO2. It can be seen that the chemical mitigation provided by the dissolution of carbonate minerals is substantial, but partial. To maintain a constant carbonate-ion concentration in a closed system, somewhat less than 1 mol CaCO3 would need to be added per mol of CO2. To do this on a large scale implies massive amounts of carbonate mineral [Rau and Caldeira, 1999]. Furthermore, this would not completely mitigate the change in pH or pCO2. If enough CaCO3 were dissolved to mitigate the change in pCO2, ocean pH and carbonate-ion concentrations would be higher than in their natural state. Nevertheless, addition of CaCO3 with CO2 brings ocean pCO2, pH, and [COB32−] closer to their natural state than they would be with the addition of CO2 alone. Thus there is potential to diminish chemical perturbation from added CO2, perhaps locally, through the dissolution of carbonate minerals.

image

Figure 11. Effects of adding CO2 and dissolved CaCO3 on mean surface ocean chemistry, assuming uniform distribution in the ocean. CaCO3 dissolution can mitigate much, but not all, of the chemical effects of CO2 addition. The dashed lines indicate no change in the chemical parameter (pCO2, pH, or [CO32−]). For example, a uniform addition of 2000 Pg C as CO2 and 8800 Pg CaCO3 to a preindustrial ocean with a pCO2 of 280 μatm (molar ratio = 1.2) would produce roughly 340 μatm pCO2, almost no change in pH, and a carbonate-ion concentration roughly 20 μmol kg−1 higher than present.

Download figure to PowerPoint

5. Discussion and Conclusions

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1. Introduction
  4. 2. Experimental Configuration
  5. 3. Ocean Chemistry Consequences of Release of CO2 to the Atmosphere
  6. 4. Mitigation
  7. 5. Discussion and Conclusions
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. References
  10. Supporting Information

[34] It is the goal of this study to allow a first-order correspondence to be made between studies of marine biological effects of added CO2 and various CO2 emissions and stabilization pathways. A wide range of biological studies suggests a sensitivity of marine biological systems to added CO2 through a variety of mechanisms [e.g., Kurihara et al., 2004; Pörtner et al., 2004; Langdon et al., 2003; Seibel and Walsh, 2001; Riebesell et al., 2000].

[35] We have performed several sets of model simulations to address two questions: (1) what changes in ocean chemistry would be expected on the century and multicentury timescale for a range of atmospheric CO2 emission and atmospheric CO2 stabilization pathways?; (2) what changes in ocean chemistry would be expected if direct injection of CO2 into the deep ocean were to be a significant contributor to atmospheric CO2 stabilization?

[36] Our simulations indicate that the SRES B1, A1, B2, and A2 pathways all lead to aragonite undersaturation in the surface Southern Ocean by year 2100. This is somewhat surprising, since the B1 pathway is often looked upon as a relatively benign “spontaneous stabilization” pathway. The WRE650, WRE750, and WRE1000 stabilization pathways eventually produce aragonite undersaturation in all or parts of the Southern Ocean. The WRE550, WRE650, WRE750, and WRE1000 pathways result in the calcite lysocline shoaling from a mean depth of greater than 3 km to a mean depth less than 1 km. Even relatively modest increases in atmospheric CO2 (e.g., to 450 ppm) cause the deep ocean to make a transition from being predominately saturated with respect to calcite to predominately undersaturated with respect to calcite.

[37] A pathway that releases 5000 Pg C (= estimated fossil fuel resources) to the atmosphere over the next several centuries causes the ocean to become undersaturated with respect to aragonite over nearly the entire surface. If organic-carbon rich shales or methane hydrates should prove minable, ultimate emissions could exceed 5000 Pg C. A pathway that emits 10,000 Pg C of CO2 to the atmosphere is predicted to produce surface ocean conditions that are undersaturated with respect to calcite nearly everywhere. Even if only one quarter of currently estimated fossil fuel resources are ultimately emitted to the atmosphere (=1250 Pg C) as CO2, the ocean below 1 km is predicted to make a transition from being mostly saturated with respect to calcite to mostly undersaturated with respect to calcite.

[38] The SRES pathways considered here produce global surface pH reductions of about 0.3 to 0.5 pH units by year 2100. This is roughly the same reduction as produced by the WRE650 and WRE1000 stabilization scenarios and by the 1250 Pg C emission scenario by year 2300. Atmospheric emissions of 5000 Pg C and 20,000 Pg C produce global surface pH reductions of 0.8 and 1.4 pH units, respectively by year 2300.

[39] For the simulation in which deep ocean injection provides 100% of the mitigation effort, deep ocean pH values are much lower than in the WRE550 simulation; however, surface ocean pH values are nearly the same as in the WRE550 simulation. There is potential to diminish chemical perturbation from added CO2, perhaps locally, through the dissolution of carbonate minerals.

[40] In our simulations, the SRES B1 results are similar to those of WRE750 and the SRES A1 results are similar to that of WRE1000. Furthermore, the 1250 Pg C emission scenario lies between the WRE550 and WRE650. This suggests that if we are to stabilize atmospheric CO2 at twice the preindustrial value, and use 5000 Pg C in fossil fuel resources, three quarters of that fossil fuel will need to be used with carbon capture and storage. Atmospheric results for the 2500 Pg C emission pathway are similar to those from the WRE1000 stabilization pathway. Thus stabilization at 1000 ppm might require carbon capture and storage for roughly half of the carbon in remaining fossil fuel resources.

[41] We did not simulate effects of changes in climate, circulation, and marine biology. In the simulations of Sarmiento et al. [1998], these feedbacks produced second-order effects on carbon uptake. Carbonate dissolution effects are thought to be small on the timescales considered here [Heinze, 2004; Zondervan et al., 2001; Archer et al., 1997, 1998], but would operate to lessen the magnitude of our results. We conjecture, but have not proved, that consideration of these feedbacks would produce second-order modifications to our basic results.

[42] Using a 5000 Pg C emission pathway and a 550 ppm atmospheric stabilization target, our simulations indicate that injection of CO2 into the deep ocean alone could not fill the entire carbon emission–free energy gap in the absence of CO2 removal from air. After several centuries of deep sea injection, the flux of previously injected carbon dioxide degassing to the atmosphere would exceed the total allowable CO2 emissions under the stabilization pathway. Without atmospheric removal, atmospheric CO2 content would increase. In contrast, when ocean injection fills 10% of the CO2 emission avoidance “gap,” degassing of injected carbon is generally far slower than the CO2 emission rate allowed under the stabilization pathway. So, from the point of view of effectiveness of storage, ocean injection could potentially solve 10% of the problem, but could not solve 100% of the problem in the absence of active CO2 removal from air several centuries into the future. Deep ocean CO2 injection as an alternative to atmospheric release makes a greater chemical impact on the deep ocean as the price for having less of an impact on the surface ocean and climate.

[43] Our results indicate that atmospheric release of CO2 will produce changes in ocean chemistry that could affect marine ecosystems significantly, even under future pathways in which most of the remaining fossil fuel CO2 is never released. Thus chemical effects of CO2 on the marine environment may be as great a cause for concern as the radiative effects of CO2 on Earth's climate.

Acknowledgments

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1. Introduction
  4. 2. Experimental Configuration
  5. 3. Ocean Chemistry Consequences of Release of CO2 to the Atmosphere
  6. 4. Mitigation
  7. 5. Discussion and Conclusions
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. References
  10. Supporting Information

[44] We wish to thank Ed Urban of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) and Maria Hood of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO for their efforts to bring attention to the issue of ocean chemistry changes. This research was supported by the DOE Office of Science Office of Biological and Environmental Research Ocean Carbon Sequestration Research Program. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-Eng-48.

References

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1. Introduction
  4. 2. Experimental Configuration
  5. 3. Ocean Chemistry Consequences of Release of CO2 to the Atmosphere
  6. 4. Mitigation
  7. 5. Discussion and Conclusions
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. References
  10. Supporting Information
  • Archer, D., H. Kheshgi, and E. Maier-Reimer (1997), Multiple timescales for neutralization of fossil fuel CO2, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 405408.
  • Archer, D., H. Kheshgi, and E. Maier-Reimer (1998), Dynamics of fossil fuel neutralization by marine CaCO3, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 12, 259276.
  • Bacastow, R., and C. D. Keeling (1973), Atmospheric carbon dioxide and radio-carbon in the natural carbon cycle. II: Changes from A. D. 1700 to 2070 as deduced from a geochemical model, in Carbon in the Biosphere, AEC Symp. Ser., vol. 30, edited by G. M. Woodwell, and E. V. Pecan, pp. 86136, NTIS U. S. Dep. of Commerce, Springfield, Va.
  • Bolin, B., and E. Eriksson (1959), Changes in the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere and the sea due to fossil fuel combustion, in The Atmosphere and the Sea in Motion, pp. 130142, Rockefeller Inst. Press, New York.
  • Brewer, P. G. (1997), Ocean chemistry of the fossil fuel CO2 signal: The haline signal of “business as usual,”, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 13671369.
  • Broecker, W. S., Y.-H. Li, and T.-H. Peng (1971), Carbon dioxide: Man's unseen artifact, in Impingement of Man on the Oceans, edited by D. W. Hood, pp. 287324, Wiley Intersci., Hoboken, N. J.
  • Caldeira, K., and P. B. Duffy (2000), The role of the Southern Ocean in uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, Science, 287, 620622.
  • Caldeira, K., and G. H. Rau (2000), Accelerating carbonate dissolution to sequester carbon dioxide in the ocean: Geochemical implications, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 225228.
  • Caldeira, K., and M. E. Wickett (2003), Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH, Nature, 425, 365365.
  • Caldeira, K., M. E. Wickett, and P. B. Duffy (2002), Depth, radiocarbon, and the effectiveness of direct CO2 injection as an ocean carbon sequestration strategy, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(16), 1766, doi:10.1029/2001GL014234.
  • Caldeira, K., G. Morgan, D. Baldocchi, P. Brewer, C. T. A. Chen, G.-J. Nabuurs, N. Nakicenovic, and G. P. Robertson (2004), A portfolio of carbon management options, in The Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Humans, Climate, and the Natural World, SCOPE, vol. 62, edited by C. B. Field, pp. 103130, Island Press, Washington, D. C.
  • Dickson, A. (1994), Handbook of Methods for the Analysis of the Various Parameters of the Carbon Dioxide System in Seawater, SOP 3, pp. 2526, U.S. Dep. of Energy, Washington, D. C.
  • Fairhall, A. W. (1973), Accumulation of fossil CO2 in the atmosphere and the sea, Nature, 245, 2023.
  • Feely, R. A., C. L. Sabine, K. Lee, W. Berelson, J. Kleypas, V. J. Fabry, and F. J. Millero (2004), Impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the oceans, Science, 305, 362366.
  • Gattuso, J.-P., D. Allemand, and M. Frankignoulle (1999), Interactions between the carbon and carbonate cycles at organism and community levels in coral reefs: A review on processes, rates and environmental control, Am. Zool., 39, 160183.
  • Haugan, P. M., and H. Drange (1996), Effects of CO2 on the ocean environment, Energy Convers. Manage., 37, 10191022.
  • Heinze, C. (2004), Simulating oceanic CaCO3 export production in the greenhouse, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L16308, doi:10.1029/2004GL020613.
  • Herzog, H., K. Caldeira, and E. Adams (2001), Carbon sequestration via direct injection, in Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, vol. 1, edited by J. H. Steele, S. A. Thorpe, and K. K. Turekian, pp. 408414, Elsevier, New York.
  • Hoffert, M. I., Y.-C. Wey, A. J. Callegari, and W. S. Broecker (1979), Atmospheric response to deep-sea injections of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide, Clim. Change, 2, 5368.
  • Hoffert, M. I., et al. (1998), Energy implications of future stabilization of atmospheric CO2 content, Nature, 395, 881884.
  • Hoffert, M. I., et al. (2002), Advanced technology paths to global climate stability: Energy for a greenhouse planet, Science, 295, 981987.
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) (2000), Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, Working Group III, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by N. Nakicenovic et al., 595 pp., Cambridge Univ. Press, New York.
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) (2001), Third Assessment Report of Working Group III, Mitigation, edited by B. Metz et al., 752 pp., Cambridge Univ. Press, New York.
  • Kalnay, E., et al. (1996), The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 437471.
  • Keith, D. W., and M. Ha-Duong (2003), CO2 capture from the air: Technology assessment and implications for climate policy, in Proceedings of the 6th Greenhouse Gas Control Conference, Kyoto, Japan, edited by J. Gale, and Y. Kaya, pp. 187197, Elsevier, New York.
  • Key, R. M., A. Kozyr, C. L. Sabine, K. Lee, R. Wanninkhof, J. L. Bullister, R. A. Feely, F. Millero, C. Mordy, and T.-H. Peng (2004), A global ocean carbon climatology: Results from Global Data Analysis Project (GLODAP), Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, GB4031, doi:10.1029/2004GB002247.
  • Kheshgi, H. S. (1995), Sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide by increasing ocean alkalinity, Energy Int. J., 20, 915922.
  • Kleypas, J. A., R. W. Buddemeier, D. Archer, J.-P. Gattuso, C. Langdon, and B. N. Opdyke (1999), Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric CO2 on coral reefs, Science, 284, 118120.
  • Kurihara, H., S. Shimode, and Y. Shirayama (2004), Sub-lethal effects of elevated concentration of CO2 on planktonic copepods and sea urchins, J. Oceanogr., 60, 743750.
  • Langdon, C., W. S. Broecker, D. E. Hammond, E. Glenn, K. Fitzsimmons, S. G. Nelson, T.-S. Peng, I. Hajdas, and G. Bonani (2003), Effect of elevated CO2 on the community metabolism of an experimental coral reef, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 17(1), 1011, doi:10.1029/2002GB001941.
  • Le Quéré, C., et al. (2003), Two decades of ocean CO2 sink and variability, Tellus, Ser. B, 55, 649656.
  • Levitus, S., R. Burgett, and T. P. Boyer (1994), World Ocean Atlas 1994, vol. 3, Salinity, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 3, 111 pp., Natl. Oceanic and Atmos. Admin., Silver Spring, Md.
  • Marchetti, C. (1991), Branching out into the universe, in Diffusion of Technologies and Social Behavior, edited by N. Nakicenovic, and A. Grübler, pp. 583592, Springer, New York.
  • Oberhuber, J. M. (1993), Simulation of the Atlantic circulation with a coupled sea-ice mixed layer-isopycnal general circulation model. Part I: Model description, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, 808829.
  • Orr, J. C.,et al. (2004), Narrowing the uncertainty for deep ocean injection efficiency, in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, edited by E. S. Rubin, D. W. Keith, and C. F. Gilboy, IEA Greenhouse Gas Prog., Vancouver, B. C., Canada.
  • Pacala, S., and R. Socolow (2004), Stabilization wedges: Solving the climate problem for the next 50 years with current technologies, Science, 305, 968972.
  • Plattner, G.-K., F. Joos, and T. F. Stocker (2002), Revision of the global carbon budget due to changing air-sea oxygen fluxes, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16(4), 1096, doi:10.1029/2001GB001746.
  • Pörtner, H. O., M. Langenbuch, and A. Reipschläger (2004), Biological impact of elevated ocean CO2 concentrations: Lessons from animal physiology and earth history? J. Oceanogr., 60, 705718.
  • Rau, G. H., and K. Caldeira (1999), Enhanced carbonate dissolution: A means of sequestering waste CO2 as ocean bicarbonate, Energy Conver. Manage., 40, 18031813.
  • Riebesell, U., I. Zondervan, B. Rost, P. D. Tortell, R. E. Zeebe, and F. M. M. Morel (2000), Reduced calcification of marine plankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2, Nature, 407, 364367.
  • Sarmiento, J. L., T. M. C. Hughes, R. J. Stouffer, and S. Manabe (1998), Simulated response of the ocean carbon cycle to anthropogenic climate warming, Nature, 393, 245249.
  • Seibel, B. A., and P. J. Walsh (2001), Potential impacts of CO2 injections on deep-sea biota, Science, 294, 319320.
  • Smith, W. H. F., and D. T. Sandwell (1997), Global seafloor topography from satellite altimetry and ship depth soundings, Science, 277, 19571962.
  • Völker, C., D. W. R. Wallace, and D. A. Wolf-Gladrow (2002), On the role of heat fluxes in the uptake of anthropogenic carbon in the North Atlantic, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16(4), 1138, doi:10.1029/2002GB001897.
  • Whitfield, M. (1974), Accumulation of fossil CO2 in the atmosphere and the sea, Nature, 247, 523525.
  • Wickett, M. E., K. Caldeira, and P. B. Duffy (2003), Effect of horizontal grid resolution on simulations of oceanic CFC-11 uptake and direct injection of anthropogenic CO2, J. Geophys. Res., 108(C6), 3189, doi:10.1029/2001JC001130.
  • Wigley, T., R. Richels, and J. Edmonds (1996), Economic and environmental choices in the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentration, Nature, 379, 242245.
  • Wolf-Gladrow, D. A., U. Riebesell, S. Burkhardt, and J. Bijma (1999), Direct effects of CO2 concentration on growth and isotopic composition of marine plankton, Tellus, Ser. B, 51, 461476.
  • Zeebe, R. E., and D. A. Wolf-Gladrow (2001), Seawater: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Isotopes, Elsevier Oceanogr. Ser., vol. 65, Elsevier, New York.
  • Zondervan, I., R. E. Zeebe, B. Rost, and U. Riebesell (2001), Decreasing marine biogenic calcification: A negative feedback on rising atmospheric pCO2, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15, 507516.

Supporting Information

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1. Introduction
  4. 2. Experimental Configuration
  5. 3. Ocean Chemistry Consequences of Release of CO2 to the Atmosphere
  6. 4. Mitigation
  7. 5. Discussion and Conclusions
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. References
  10. Supporting Information
FilenameFormatSizeDescription
jgrc9836-sup-0001-t01.txtplain text document1KTab-delimited Table 1.

Please note: Wiley Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.