SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Arimoto, R., B. J. Ray, N. F. Lewis, U. Tomza, and R. A. Duce (1997), Mass-particle size distributions of atmospheric dust and the dry deposition of dust to the remote ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D13), 15,86715,874.
  • Biscaye, P. (1965), Mineralogy and sedimentation of recent deep-sea clay in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas and oceans, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 76, 803832.
  • Caquineau, S., A. Gaudichet, L. Gomes, M.-C. Magonthier, and B. Chatenet (1998), Saharan dust: Clay ratio as a relevant tracer to assess the origin of soil-derived aerosols, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(7), 983986.
  • Caquineau, S., A. Gaudichet, L. Gomes, and M. Legrand (2002), Mineralogy of Saharan dust transported over northwestern tropical Atlantic Ocean in relation to source regions, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D15), 4251, doi:10.1029/2000JD000247.
  • Carlson, T. N., and J. M. Prospero (1972), The large-scale movement of Saharan air outbreaks over the northern equatorial Atlantic, J. Appl. Meteorol., 11(2), 283297.
  • Chester, R., and L. R. Johnson (1971), Atmospheric dusts collected off the West African coast, Nature, 229, 105107.
  • Chiapello, I., G. Bergametti, B. Chatenet, P. Bousquet, F. Dulac, and S. Soares (1997), Origins of African dust transported over the northeastern tropical Atlantic, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D12), 13,70113,709.
  • Chiapello, I., J. M. Prospero, J. R. Herman, and N. C. Hsu (1999), Detection of mineral dust over the North Atlantic Ocean and Africa with the Nimbus 7 TOMS, J. Geophys. Res., 104(D8), 92779291.
  • d'Almeida, G. A. (1989), Desert aerosol: Characteristics and effects on climate, in Palaeoclimatology and Palaeometeorology: Modern and Past Patterns of Global Atmospheric Transport, edited by M. Leinen, and M. Sarnthein, pp. 311338, Springer, New York.
  • Darwin, C. (1846), An account of the fine dust which often falls on vessels in the Atlantic Ocean, Q. J. Geol. Soc. London, 2, 2630.
  • deMenocal, P. B., J. Ortiz, T. P. Guilderson, J. Adkins, M. Sarnthein, L. Baker, and M. Yarusinsky (2000), Abrupt onset and termination of the African Humid Period: Rapid climate responses to gradual insolation forcing, Quat. Sci. Rev., 19, 347361.
  • Dobson, M. (1781), An account of the Harmattan, a singular African wind, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, 71, 4657.
  • Duce, R. A., P. S. Liss, J. T. Merrill, E. L. Atlas, and P. Buat-Ménard (1991), The atmospheric input of trace species to the world ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 5(3), 193259.
  • Glaccum, R. A., and J. M. Prospero (1980), Saharan aerosols over the tropical North Atlantic—Mineralogy, Mar. Geol., 37(3–4), 295321.
  • Guieu, C., M.-D. Loÿe-Pilot, C. Ridame, and C. Thomas (2002), Chemical characterization of the Saharan dust end-member: Some biogeochemical implications for the western Mediterranean Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D15), 4258, doi:10.1029/2001JD000582.
  • Hamilton, R. A., and J. W. Archbold (1945), Meteorology of Nigeria and adjacent territory, Q. J. Geol. Soc. London, 71, 231265.
  • Hastenrath, S. (1985), Climate and Circulation of the Tropics, 455 pp., Springer, New York.
  • Herman, J. R., P. K. Bhartia, O. Torres, C. Hsu, C. Seftor, and E. Celarier (1997), Global distribution of UV-absorbing aerosols from Nimbus 7/TOMS data, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D14), 16,91116,922.
  • Holz, C., J.-B. W. Stuut, and R. Henrich (2004), Terrigenous sedimentation processes along the continental margin off NW-Africa: Implications from grain-size analyses of surface sediments, Sedimentology, 51(5), 11451154.
  • Husar, R. B., J. M. Prospero, and L. L. Stowe (1997), Characterization of tropospheric aerosols over the oceans with the NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer optical thickness operational product, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D14), 16,88916,909.
  • Kalu, A. E. (1979), The African dust plume: Its characteristics and propagation across West Africa in winter, SCOPE, 14, 95118.
  • Kiefert, L. (1994), Characteristics of wind transported dust in eastern Australia, Ph.D. thesis, Griffith Univ., Brisbane, Australia.
  • Kiefert, L., G. H. McTainsh, and W. G. Nickling (1996), Sedimentological characteristics of Saharan and Australian dusts, in The Impact of Desert Dust Across the Mediterranean, edited by S. Guerzoni, and R. Chester, pp. 183190, Springer, New York.
  • Kohfeld, K. E., and S. P. Harrison (2001), DIRTMAP: The geological record of dust, Earth Sci. Rev., 54(1), 81114.
  • Konert, M., and J. Vandenberghe (1997), Comparison of laser grain size analysis with pipette and sieve analysis: A solution for the underestimation of the clay fraction, Sedimentology, 44(3), 523535.
  • Koopmann, B. (1981), Sedimentation von Saharastaub im subtropischen Nordatlantik während der letzten 25.000 Jahre, Meteor Forschungsergeb., Reihe C, 35, 2359.
  • Krumbein, W. C., and F. J. Pettijohn (1938), Manual of Sedimentary Petrography, 549 pp., Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.
  • Martin, J. H., and S. E. Fitzwater (1988), Iron deficiency limits phytoplankton growth in the northeast Pacific subarctic, Nature, 331, 341343.
  • McTainsh, G. H. (1980), Harmattan dust deposition in northern Nigeria, Nature, 286, 587588.
  • McTainsh, G. H. (1982), Harmattan dust, aeolian mantles and dunesands of central northern Nigeria, Ph.D. thesis, Macquarie Univ., Sydney, Australia.
  • McTainsh, G. H., and P. H. Walker (1982), Nature and distribution of Harmattan dust, Z. Geomorphol., 26(4), 417435.
  • Middleton, N. J., and A. S. Goudie (2001), Saharan dust: Sources and trajectories, Trans. Inst. Br. Geogr., 26(2), 165181.
  • Moreno, A., J. Targarona, J. Henderiks, M. Canals, T. Freudenthal, and H. Meggers (2001), Orbital forcing of dust supply to the North Canary Basin over the last 250 kyr, Quat. Sci. Rev., 20, 13271339.
  • Muhs, D. R., C. A. Bush, K. C. Stewart, T. R. Rowland, and R. C. Crittenden (1990), Geochemical evidence of Saharan dust parent material for soils developed on Quaternary limestones of Caribbean and western Atlantic islands, Quat. Res., 33, 157177.
  • Nicholson, S. E. (2000), The nature of rainfall variability over Africa on time scales of decades to millennia, Global Planet. Change, 26, 137158.
  • Oliver, J. E., and R. W. Fairbridge (1987), The Encyclopedia of Climatology, pp. 986, Van Nostrand Reinhold, Hoboken, N. J.
  • Ott, S.-T., A. Ott, D. W. Martin, and J. A. Young (1991), Analysis of a trans-Atlantic Saharan dust outbreak based on satellite and GATE data, Mon. Weather Rev., 119(8), 18321850.
  • Pérez-Marrero, J., O. Llinás, L. Maroto, M. J. Rueda, and A. Cianca (2002), Saharan dust storms over the Canary Islands during winter 1998 as depicted from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer, Deep Sea Res., Part II, 49(17), 34653479.
  • Prospero, J. M. (1990), Mineral-aerosol transport to the north Atlantic and north Pacific: The impact of African and Asian sources, in The Long-Range Atmospheric Transport of Natural and Contaminant Substances, edited by A. H. Knap, pp. 5986, Springer, New York.
  • Prospero, J. M. (1996), The atmospheric transport of particles to the ocean, in Particle Flux in the Ocean, edited by V. Ittekkot et al., pp. 1952, John Wiley, Hoboken, N. J.
  • Prospero, J. M., and P. J. Lamb (2003), African droughts and dust transport to the Caribbean: Climate change implications, Science, 302, 10241027.
  • Prospero, J. M., R. A. Glaccum, and R. T. Nees (1981), Atmospheric transport of soil dust from Africa to South America, Nature, 289, 570572.
  • Prospero, J. M., P. Ginoux, O. Torres, S. E. Nicholson, and T. E. Gill (2002), Environmental characterization of global sources of atmospheric soil dust identified with the NIMBUS 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) absorbing aerosol product, Rev. Geophys., 40(1), 1002, doi:10.1029/2000RG000095.
  • Pye, K. (1987), Aeolian Dust and Dust Deposits, 334 pp., Elsevier, New York.
  • Ratmeyer, V., G. Fischer, and G. Wefer (1999), Lithogenic particle fluxes and grain size distributions in the deep ocean off northwest Africa: Implications for seasonal changes of aeolian dust input and downward transport, Deep Sea Res., Part I, 46(8), 12891337.
  • Rea, D. K. (1994), The paleoclimatic record provided by eolian deposition in the deep sea: The geologic history of wind, Rev. Geophys., 32(2), 159195.
  • Reed, R. J., D. C. Norquist, and E. E. Recker (1977), The structure and properties of African wave disturbances as observed during phase III of GATE, Mon. Weather Rev., 105(3), 317373.
  • Rognon, P., and G. Coudé-Gaussen (1996), Paleoclimates off NW Africa (28–35°N) about 18,000 yr BP based on continental eolian deposits, Quat. Res., 46, 118126.
  • Romero, O. E., L. Dupont, U. Wyputta, S. Jahns, and G. Wefer (2003), Temporal variability of fluxes of eolian-transported freshwater diatoms, phytoliths, and pollen grains off Cape Blanc as reflection of land-atmosphere-ocean interactions in northwest Africa, J. Geophys. Res., 108(C5), 3153, doi:10.1029/2000JC000375.
  • Ruddiman, W. F. (2001), Earth's Climate—Past and Future, 465 pp., W. H. Freeman, New York.
  • Sarnthein, M., G. Tetzlaff, B. Koopmann, K. Wolter, and U. Pflaumann (1981), Glacial and interglacial wind regimes over the eastern subtropical Atlantic and north-west Africa, Nature, 293, 193196.
  • Sarnthein, M., J. Thiede, U. Pflaumann, H. Erlenkeuser, D. Fütterer, B. Koopmann, H. Lange, and E. Seibold (1982), Atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns off northwest Africa during the past 25 million years, in Geology of the Northwest African Continental Margin, edited by U. Von Rad, K. Hinz, M. Sarnthein, and E. Seibold, pp. 545604, Springer, New York.
  • Schefuß, E., V. Ratmeyer, J.-B. W. Stuut, J. H. F. Jansen, and J. S. Sinninghe Damsté (2003), Carbon isotope analyses of n-alkanes in dust from the lower atmosphere over the central eastern Atlantic, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 67(10), 17571767.
  • Schulz, H. D., et al. (1998), Report and preliminary results of Meteor Cruise M41/1, in Berichte aus dem Fachbereich Geowissenschaften der Universität Bremen, 114, 124 pp., Univ. at Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
  • Schütz, L., R. Jaenicke, and H. Pietrek (1981), Saharan dust transport over the North Atlantic Ocean, Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., 186, 87100.
  • Shinn, E. A., G. W. Smith, J. M. Prospero, P. Betzer, M. L. Hayes, V. Garrison, and R. T. Barber (2000), African dust and the demise of Caribbean coral reefs, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27(19), 30293032.
  • Simoneit, B. R. T., R. E. Cox, and L. J. Standley (1988), Organic matter of the troposphere—IV. Lipids in Harmattan aerosols of Nigeria, Atmos. Environ., 22(5), 9831004.
  • Stuut, J.-B. W. (2001), Late Quaternary southwestern African terrestrial-climate signals in the marine record of Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic Ocean, Ph.D. thesis, 128 pp., Utrecht Univ., Utrecht, Netherlands.
  • Swap, R., S. Ulanski, M. Cobbett, and M. Garstrang (1996), Temporal and spatial characteristics of Saharan dust outbreaks, J. Geophys. Res., 101(D2), 42054220.
  • Talbot, R. W., R. C. Harriss, E. V. Browell, G. L. Gregory, D. I. Sebacher, and S. M. Beck (1986), Distribution and geochemistry of aerosols in the tropical North Atlantic troposphere: Relationship to Saharan dust, J. Geophys. Res., 91(D4), 51735182.
  • Torres-Padrón, M. E., M. D. Gelado-Caballero, C. Collado-Sánchez, V. F. Siruela-Matos, P. J. Cardona-Castellano, and J. J. Hernández-Brito (2002), Variability of dust inputs to the CANIGO zone, Deep Sea Res., Part II, 49(17), 34553464.
  • Van der Gaast, S. (1991), Mineralogical analysis of marine particles by X-ray powder diffraction, in Marine Particles: Analysis and Characterization, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 63, edited by D. C. Hurd, and D. W. Spencer, pp. 343362, AGU, Washington, D. C.
  • Viana, M., X. Querol, A. Alastuey, E. Cuevas, and S. Rodríguez (2002), Influence of African dust on the levels of atmospheric particulates in the Canary Islands air quality network, Atmos. Environ., 36(38), 58615875.
  • Wilke, B.-M., B. J. Duke, and W. L. O. Jimoh (1984), Mineralogy and chemistry of Harmattan dust in Northern Nigeria, Catena, 11(1), 9196.
  • Wilson, I. G. (1971), Desert sandflow basins and a model for the development of ergs, Geogr. J., 137, 180198.
  • Zabel, M., T. Bickert, L. Dittert, and R. R. Häse (1999), Significance of the sedimentary Al:Ti ratio as an indicator for variations in the circulation patterns of the equatorial North Atlantic, Paleoceanography, 14(6), 789799.
  • Zabel, M., R. R. Schneider, T. Wagner, A. T. Adegbie, U. De Vries, and S. Kolonic (2001), Late Quaternary climate changes in central Africa as inferred from terrigenous input to the Niger Fan, Quat. Res., 56, 207217.