SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Alard, O., W. L. Griffin, N. J. Pearson, J.-P. Lorand, and S. Y. O'Reilly (2002), New insights into the Re-Os systematics of sub-continental lithospheric mantle from in-situ analysis of sulphides, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 203, 651663.
  • Albarede, F. (1998), The growth of continental crust, Tectonophysics, 296, 114.
  • Allègre, C. J., S. R. Hart, and J.-F. Minster (1983), Chemical structure and evolution of the mantle and continents determined by inversion of Nd and Sr isotopic data, II. Numerical experiments and discussion, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 66, 191213.
  • Arndt, N. T., and E. G. Nisbit (1982), Komatiites, Allen and Unwin, St. Leonards, N. S. W., Australia.
  • Artemieva, I. M., and W. D. Mooney (2002), On the relations between cratonic lithosphere thickness, plate motions, and basal drag, Tectonophysics, 358, 211231.
  • Aulbach, S., W. L. Griffin, N. J. Pearson, S. Y. O'Reilly, K. Kivi, and B. J. Doyle (2004), Mantle formation and evolution, Slave craton: Constraints from HSE abundances and Re-Os isotope systematics of sulfide inclusions in mantle xenocrysts, Chem. Geol., 208, 6188.
  • Becker, H., S. B. Shirey, and R. W. Carlson (2001), Effect of melt percolation on the Re-Os systematics of peridotites from a Paleozoic convergent plate margin, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 188, 107121.
  • Bell, D. R., M. D. Schmitz, and P. E. Janney (2003), Mesozoic thermal evolution of the southern African mantle lithosphere, Lithos, 71, 273287.
  • Bernstein, S., P. B. Kelemen, and C. K. Brooks (1998), Depleted spinel harzburgite xenoliths in Tertiary dykes from East Greenland: Restites from high degree melting, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 154, 221235.
  • Bina, C. R. (2003), Seismological constraints upon mantle composition, in Treatise on Geochemistry, vol. 2, The Mantle and Core, edited by R. W. Carlson, H. D. Holland, and K. K. Turekian, pp. 3959, Elsevier, New York.
  • Bodinier, J.-L., and M. Godard (2003), Orogenic, ophiolitic, and abyssal peridotites, in Treatise on Geochemistry, vol. 2, The Mantle and Core, edited by R. W. Carlson, H. D. Holland, and K. K. Turekian, pp. 103170, Elsevier, New York.
  • Bostock, M. G. (1997), Anisotropic upper-mantle stratigraphy and architecture of the Slave craton, Nature, 390, 392395.
  • Boyd, F. R. (1973), A pyroxene geotherm, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 37, 25332546.
  • Boyd, F. R. (1987), High- and low-temperature garnet peridotite xenoliths and their possible relation to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, in Mantle Xenoliths, edited by P. H. Nixon, pp. 403412, John Wiley, Hoboken, N. J.
  • Boyd, F. R., and J. J. Gurney (1986), Diamonds and the African lithosphere, Science, 232, 472477.
  • Boyd, F. R., and R. H. McCallister (1976), Densities of fertile and sterile garnet peridotites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 3, 509512.
  • Boyd, F. R., and S. A. Mertzman (1987), Composition and structure of the Kaapvaal lithosphere, Southern Africa, in Magmatic Processes: Physicochemical Principles, edited by B. O. Mysen, pp. 312, Geochem. Soc., University Park, Pa.
  • Boyd, F. R., N. P. Pokhilenko, D. G. Pearson, S. A. Mertzman, N. V. Sobolev, and L. W. Finger (1997), Composition of the Siberian cratonic mantle: Evidence from Udachnaya peridotite xenoliths, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 128, 228246.
  • Boyd, F. R., K. O. Hoal, B. G. Hoal, D. G. Pearson, P. H. Nixon, and M. J. Kingston (2004), Garnet lherzolites from Louwrencia, Namibia: Bulk composition and P/T relations, Lithos, 77, 573592.
  • Brey, G. P., T. Koehler, and K. G. Nickel (1990), Geothermobarometry in four-phase lherzolites: I, Experimental results from 10 to 60 kb, J. Petrol., 31, 13131352.
  • Burton, K. W., P. Schiano, J. L. Birck, C. J. Allegre, M. Rehkaemper, A. N. Halliday, and J. B. Dawson (2000), The distribution and behaviour of rhenium and osmium amongst mantle minerals and the age of the lithospheric mantle beneath Tanzania, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 183, 93106.
  • Canil, D. (2004), Mildly incompatible elements in peridotites and the origins of mantle lithosphere, Lithos, 77, 375393.
  • Canil, D., and H. S. C. O'Neill (1996), Distribution of ferric iron in some upper mantle assemblages, J. Petrol., 37, 609635.
  • Carlson, R. W. (2005), Application of the Pt-Re-Os isotopic systems in igneous geochemistry and geochronology, Lithos, in press.
  • Carlson, R. W., and A. J. Irving (1994), Depletion and enrichment history of subcontinental lithospheric mantle: An Os, Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic study of ultramafic xenoliths from the northwestern Wyoming craton, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 126, 457472.
  • Carlson, R. W., and R. O. Moore (2004), Age of the eastern Kaapvaal mantle: Re-Os isotope data for peridotite xenoliths from the Monastery kimberlite, S. Afr. J. Geol., 107, 8190.
  • Carlson, R. W., A. J. Irving, and B. C. Hearn Jr. (1999a), Chemical and isotopic systematics of peridotite xenoliths from the Williams kimberlite, Montana: Clues to processes of lithosphere formation, modification and destruction, in Proceedings of the 7th International Kimberlite Conference, edited by J. J. Gurney et al., pp. 9098, Red Roof Design, Cape Town.
  • Carlson, R. W., D. G. Pearson, F. R. Boyd, S. B. Shirey, G. Irvine, A. H. Menzies, and J. J. Gurney (1999b), Re-Os systematics of lithospheric peridotites: Implications for lithosphere formation and preservation, in Proceedings of the 7th International Kimberlite Conference, edited by J. J. Gurney et al., pp. 99108, Red Roof Design, Cape Town.
  • Carlson, R. W., A. J. Irving, D. J. Schulze, and B. C. Hearn Jr. (2004), Timing of Precambrian melt depletion and Phanerozoic refertilization events in the lithospheric mantle of the Wyoming craton and adjacent Central Plains Orogen, Lithos, 77, 453472.
  • CD-ROM Working Group (2002), Structure and evolution of the lithosphere beneath the Rocky Mountains: Initial results from the CD-ROM experiment, GSA Today, 12, 410.
  • Chesley, J. T., R. L. Rudnick, and C.-T. Lee (1999), Re-Os systematics of mantle xenoliths from the East African rift: Age, structure, and history of the Tanzanian craton, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63, 12031217.
  • Christensen, U. R. (1989), Mixing by time-dependent convection, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 95, 667670.
  • Czamanske, G. K., A. B. Gurevitch, V. Federenko, and O. Simonov (1998), Demise of the Siberian plume: Paleogeographic and paleotectonic reconstruction from the prevolcanic and volcanic record, north-central Siberia, Int. Geol. Rev., 40, 95115.
  • deWit, M. J., C. Roering, R. J. Hart, R. A. Armstrong, C. E. J. de Ronde, R. W. E. Green, M. Tredoux, E. Peberdy, and R. A. Hart (1992), Formation of an Archaean continent, Nature, 357, 553562.
  • Dixon, J. E., T. H. Dixon, D. R. Bell, and R. Malservisi (2004), Lateral variation in upper mantle viscosity: Role of water, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 222, 451467.
  • Drennen, G. R., L. R. Robb, F. M. Meyer, R. A. Armstrong, and H. de Bruiyn (1990), The nature of the Archean basement in the hinterland of the Witwatersrand Basin: II, A crustal profile west of the Welkom Goldfield and comparisons to the Vredefort crustal profile, S. Afr. J. Geol., 93, 4153.
  • Ducea, M. N., and J. B. Saleeby (1996), Buoyancy sources for a large, unrooted mountain range, the Sierra Nevada, California: Evidence from xenolith thermobarometry, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 82298244.
  • Eggler, D. H., M. E. McCallum, and M. B. Kirkley (1987), Kimberlite-transported nodules from Colorado-Wyoming: A record of enrichment of shallow portions of an infertile lithosphere, in Mantle Metasomatism and Alkaline Magmatism, edited by E. M. Morris, and J. D. Pasteris, Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., 215, 7790.
  • Eggler, D. H., J. K. Meen, F. Welt, F. O. Dudas, K. P. Furlong, M. E. McCallum, and R. W. Carlson (1988), Tectonomagmatism of the Wyoming Province, in Colorado Volcanism, edited by J. Drexler, and E. E. Larson, Colo. Sch. Mines Q., 83, 2540.
  • Ehrenberg, S. N. (1979), Garnetiferous ultramafic inclusions in minette from the Navajo volcanic field, in The Mantle Sample: Inclusions in Kimberlites and Other Volcanics, edited by F. R. Boyd, and H. O. A. Meyer, pp. 330344, AGU, Washington, D. C.
  • Fei, Y., C. M. Bertka, and B. O. Mysen (1999), Mantle Petrology: Field Observations and High-Pressure Experimentation: A Tribute to Francis R. (Joe) Boyd, Spec. Publ. Geochem. Soc., 6, 322 pp.
  • Finnerty, A. A., and F. R. Boyd (1987), Thermobarometry for garnet peridotites: Basis for the determination of thermal and compositional structure of the upper mantle, in Mantle Xenoliths, edited by P. H. Nixon, pp. 381402, John Wiley, Hoboken, N. J.
  • Forte, A. M., and C. H. K. Perry (2000), Geodynamic evidence for a chemically depleted continental tectosphere, Science, 290, 19401944.
  • Forte, A. M., A. M. Dziewonski, and R. J. O'Connell (1995), Continent-ocean chemical heterogeneity in the mantle based on seismic tomography, Science, 268, 386388.
  • Fowler, C. M. R., C. J. Ebinger, and C. J. Hawkesworth (2002), The Early Earth: Physical, Chemical and Biological Development, Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ., 199, 352 pp.
  • Francis, D. (2003), Cratonic mantle roots, remnants of a more chondritic Archean mantle? Lithos, 71, 135152.
  • Gaetani, G. A., and T. L. Grove (1998), The influence of water on melting of mantle peridotite, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 131, 323346.
  • Gao, S., R. L. Rudnick, R. W. Carlson, W. F. McDonough, and Y.-S. Liu (2002a), Re-Os evidence for replacement of ancient mantle lithosphere beneath the north China craton, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 198, 307322.
  • Gao, S. S., P. G. Silver, and K. H. Liu (2002b), Mantle discontinuities beneath southern Africa, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(10), 1491, doi:10.1029/2001GL013834.
  • Godey, S., F. Deschamps, J. Trampert, and R. Snieder (2004), Thermal and compositional anomalies beneath the North American continent, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B01308, doi:10.1029/2002JB002263.
  • Goes, S., and S. van der Lee (2002), Thermal structure of the North American uppermost mantle inferred from seismic tomography, J. Geophys. Res., 107(3), 2050, doi:10.1029/2000JB000049.
  • Goes, S., R. Govers, and P. Vacher (2000), Shallow mantle temperatures under Europe from P and S wave tomography, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 11,15311,170.
  • Grand, S. P. (1987), Tomographic inversion for shear velocity beneath the North American plate, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 14,06514,090.
  • Griffin, W. L., A. D. Zhang, S. Y. O'Reilly, and C. G. Ryan (1998), Phanerozoic evolution of the lithosphere beneath the Sino-Korean craton, in Mantle Dynamics and Plate Interactions in East Asia, Geodyn. Ser., vol. 27, edited by M. Flower et al., pp. 107126, AGU, Washington, D. C.
  • Griffin, W. L., B. J. Doyle, C. G. Ryan, N. J. Pearson, S. Y. O'Reilly, R. Davies, K. Kivi, E. van Achterbergh, and L. M. Natapov (1999), Layered mantle lithosphere in the Lac de Gras area, Slave craton: Composition, structure and origin, J. Petrol., 40, 705727.
  • Griffin, W. L., Z. V. Spetsius, N. J. Pearson, and S. Y. O'Reilly (2002), In-situ Re-Os analysis of sulfide inclusions in kimberlitic olivine: New constraints on depletion events in the Siberian lithospheric mantle, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 3(11), 1069, doi:10.1029/2001GC000287.
  • Griffin, W. L., S. Y. O'Reilly, L. M. Natapov, and C. G. Ryan (2003), The evolution of lithospheric mantle beneath the Kalahari craton and its margins, Lithos, 71, 215241.
  • Griffin, W. L., S. Graham, S. Y. O'Reilly, and N. J. Pearson (2004), Lithosphere evolution beneath the Kaapvaal craton: Re-Os systematics of sulfides in mantle-derived peridotites, Chem. Geol., 208, 89118.
  • Grove, T. L., S. W. Parman, S. A. Bowring, R. C. Price, and M. B. Baker (2002), The role of an H2O-rich fluid component in the generation of primitive basaltic andesites and andesites from the Mt. Shasta region, N. California, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 142, 375396.
  • Haggerty, S. E., and V. Sautter (1990), Ultradeep (greater than 300 kilometers), ultramafic upper mantle xenoliths, Science, 248, 993996.
  • Handler, M. R., and V. C. Bennett (1999), Behaviour of platinum-group elements in the subcontinental mantle of eastern Australia during variable metasomatism and melt depletion, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63, 35973618.
  • Handler, M. R., V. C. Bennett, and T. M. Esat (1997), The persistence of off-cratonic lithospheric mantle: Os isotopic systematics of variably metasomatised southeast Australian xenoliths, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 151, 6175.
  • Handler, M. R., R. J. Wysoczanski, and J. A. Gamble (2003), Proterozoic lithosphere in Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica: Re-Os systematics of spinel peridotite xenoliths, Chem. Geol., 196, 131145.
  • Hanghoj, K., P. Kelemen, S. Bernstein, J. Blusztajn, and R. Frei (2001), Osmium isotopes in the Wiedemann Fjord mantle xenoliths: A unique record of cratonic mantle formation by melt depletion in the Archaean, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 2, doi:10.1029/2000GC000085.
  • Harris, J. W. (1992), Diamond geology, in The Properties of Natural and Synthetic Diamond, edited by J. E. Field, pp. 345393, Springer, New York.
  • Harte, B. (1977), Rock nomenclature with particular relations to deformation and recrystallization textures in olivine-bearing xenoliths, J. Geol., 85, 279288.
  • Harte, B., and R. Freer (1982), Diffusion data and their bearing on the interpretation of mantle nodules and the evolution of mantle lithosphere, Terra Cognita, 2, 273275.
  • Harte, B., J. W. Harris, M. T. Hutchinson, G. R. Watt, and M. C. Wilding (1999), Lower mantle mineral associations in diamonds from Sao Luiz, Brazil, in Mantle Petrology: Field Observations and High-Pressure Experimentation: A Tribute to Francis R. (Joe) Boyd, edited by Y. Fei, C. M. Bertka, and B. O. Mysen, Spec. Publ. Geochem. Soc., 6, 125153.
  • Hearn, B. C.Jr. (1993), Composite megacrysts and megacryst aggregates from the Williams kimberlites, Montana, USA: Multiple products of mantle melts, in Proceedings of the 5th International Kimberlite Conference, edited by H. O. A. Meyer, and O. H. Leonardos, pp. 388404, Co. de Pesqui. de Recursos Miner., Rio de Janeiro.
  • Hearn, B. C.Jr., and E. S. McGee (1984), Garnet peridotites from Williams kimberlites, north-central Montana, USA, in Kimberlites II: The Mantle and Crust-Mantle Relationships, edited by J. Kornprobst, pp. 5770, Elsevier, New York.
  • Helmstaedt, H., and D. J. Schulze (1989), Southern African kimberlites and their mantle sample: Implications for Archaean tectonics and lithosphere evolution, in Kimberlites and Related Rocks: Their Composition, Occurrence, Origin and Emplacement, edited by J. Ross, pp. 358368, Blackwell Sci., Malden, Mass.
  • Herzberg, C. T. (1993), Lithosphere peridotites of the Kaapvaal craton, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 120, 1329.
  • Herzberg, C. (1999), Formation of cratonic mantle as plume residues and cumulates, in Mantle Petrology: Field Observations and High Pressure Experimentation, edited by Y. Fei, C. Bertka, and B. O. Mysen, pp. 241257, Geochem. Soc., Houston, Tex.
  • Herzberg, C., and J. Zhang (1994), The Earth as a giant chondrule? Eos Trans. AGU, 75(16), Spring Meet. Suppl. 60.
  • Hirth, G., and D. L. Kohlstedt (1996), Water in the oceanic upper mantle: Implications for rheology, melt extraction and the evolution of the lithosphere, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 144, 93108.
  • Hofmeister, A. M. (1999), Mantle values of thermal conductivity and the geotherm from phonon lifetimes, Science, 283, 16991706.
  • Ionov, D. A., I. V. Ashchepkov, H.-G. Stosch, G. Witt-Eickschen, and H. A. Seck (1993), Garnet peridotite xenoliths from the Vitim volcanic field, Baikal Region: The nature of the garnet-spinel peridotite transition zone in the continental mantle, J. Petrol., 34, 11411175.
  • Irvine, G. J., D. G. Pearson, and R. W. Carlson (2001), Lithospheric mantle evolution of the Kaapvaal Craton: A Re-Os isotope study of peridotite xenoliths from Lesotho kimberlites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 25052508.
  • Irvine, G. J., D. G. Pearson, B. A. Kjarsgaard, R. W. Carlson, M. G. Kopylova, and G. Dreibus (2003), A Re-Os isotope and PGE study of kimberlite-derived peridotite xenoliths from Somerset Island and a comparison to the Slave and Kaapvaal cratons, Lithos, 71, 461488.
  • Jacobsen, S. B., and G. J. Wasserburg (1979), The mean age of mantle and crustal reservoirs, J. Geophys. Res., 84, 74117427.
  • Jagoutz, E., H. Palme, H. Baddenhausen, K. Blum, M. Cendales, G. Dreibus, B. Spettel, V. Lorenz, and H. Wanke (1979), The abundances of major, minor and trace elements in the Earth's mantle as derived from primitive ultramafic nodules, Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., 10th, 20312050.
  • James, D. E., M. J. Fouch, J. C. VanDecar, and S. van der Lee (2001), Tectospheric structure beneath southern Africa, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 24852488.
  • James, D. E., F. R. Boyd, D. Schutt, D. R. Bell, and R. W. Carlson (2004), Xenolith constraints on seismic velocities in the upper mantle beneath southern Africa, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 5, Q01002, doi:10.1029/2003GC000551.
  • Jaques, A. L., H. S. C. O'Neill, C. B. Smith, J. Moon, and B. W. Chappell (1990), Diamondiferous peridotite xenoliths from the Argyle (AK1) lamproite pipe, Western Australia, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 104, 255276.
  • Jones, A. G., P. Lezaeta, I. J. Ferguson, A. D. Chave, R. L. Evans, X. Garcia, and J. Spratt (2003), The electrical structure of the Slave craton, Lithos, 71, 505527.
  • Jones, A. G., R. W. Carlson, and H. Grutter (2004), A Tale of Two Cratons: The Slave-Kaapvaal Workshop, Elsevier, New York.
  • Jordan, T. H. (1975), The continental tectosphere, Rev. Geophys., 13, 112.
  • Jordan, T. H. (1978), Composition and development of the continental tectosphere, Nature, 274, 544548.
  • Jordan, T. H. (1979), Mineralogies, densities and seismic velocities of garnet lherzolites and their geophysical implications, in The Mantle Sample: Inclusions in Kimberlites and Other Volcanics, edited by F. R. Boyd, and H. O. A. Meyer, pp. 113, AGU, Washington, D. C.
  • Jordan, T. H. (1988), Structure and formation of the continental tectosphere, J. Petrol., 29, 1137.
  • Jordan, T. H. (2003), Speculations on some problems of continental evolution, Eos Trans. AGU, 84(46), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract S11A-01.
  • Karato, S. (1986), Does partial melting reduce the creep strength of the upper mantle? Nature, 319, 309310.
  • Karato, S., and H. Jung (1998), Water, partial melting and the origin of the seismic low velocity and high attenuation zone in the upper mantle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 157, 193207.
  • Karato, S., and H. Jung (2003), Effects of pressure on high-temperature dislocation creep in olivine polycrystals, Philos. Mag. A, 83, 401414.
  • Karato, S., M. S. Paterson, and J. D. Fitzgerald (1986), Rheology of synthetic olivine aggregates: Influence of grain size and water, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 81518176.
  • Kawamoto, T., and J. R. Holloway (1997), Melting temperature and partial melt chemistry of H2O-saturated mantle peridotite to 11 Gigapascals, Science, 276, 240243.
  • Kay, R. W., and S. M. Kay (1993), Delamination and delamination magmatism, Tectonophysics, 219, 177189.
  • Kay, S. M., B. Coira, and J. Viramonte (1994), Young mafic back arc volcanic rocks as indicators of continental lithospheric delamination beneath the Argentine Puna Plateau, central Andes, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 24,32324,339.
  • Kelemen, P. B., S. R. Hart, and S. Bernstein (1998), Silica enrichment in the continental upper mantle via melt/rock reaction, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 164, 387406.
  • Kelly, R. K., P. B. Kelemen, and M. Jull (2003), Buoyancy of the continental upper mantle, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 4(2), 1017, doi:10.1029/2002GC000399.
  • Kennedy, C. S., and G. C. Kennedy (1976), The equilibrium boundary between graphite and diamond, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 24672470.
  • Kinzler, R. J., and T. L. Grove (1992), Primary magmas of mid-ocean ridge basalts: 2. Applications, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 69076926.
  • Kopylova, M. G., and J. K. Russell (2000), Chemical stratification of cratonic lithosphere: Constraints from the northern Slave craton, Canada, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 181, 7187.
  • Kopylova, M. G., J. K. Russell, and H. Cookenboo (1999), Petrology of peridotite and pyroxenite xenoliths from the Jericho kimberlite: Implications for the thermal state of the mantle beneath the Slave craton, northern Canada, J. Petrol., 40, 79104.
  • Kramers, J. D. (1979), Lead, uranium, strontium, potassium and rubidium in inclusion-bearing diamonds and mantle-derived xenoliths from southern Africa, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 42, 5870.
  • Larson, A. M., J. A. Snoke, D. E. James, J. Gore, and T. Nguuri (2003), Comparison of S-wave velocity structure beneath the Kaapvaal craton from surface-wave inversion with predictions from mantle xenoliths, Eos Trans. AGU, 84(46), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract S51C-0058.
  • Lee, C.-T. (2003), Compositional variation of density and seismic velocities in natural peridotites at STP conditions: Implications for seismic imaging of compositional heterogeneities in the upper mantle, J. Geophys. Res., 108(B9), 2441, doi:10.1029/2003JB002413.
  • Lee, C.-T., and R. L. Rudnick (1999), Compositionally stratified cratonic lithosphere: Petrology and geochemistry of peridotite xenoliths from the Labait volcano, Tanzania, in Proceedings of the 7th International Kimberlite Conference, edited by J. J. Gurney et al., pp. 503521, Red Roof Design, Cape Town.
  • Lee, C.-T., Q. Yin, R. L. Rudnick, J. T. Chesley, and S. B. Jacobsen (2000), Os isotopic evidence for Mesozoic removal of lithospheric mantle beneath the Sierra Nevada, California, Science, 289, 19121916.
  • Lee, C.-T., Q. Yin, R. L. Rudnick, and S. B. Jacobsen (2001), Preservation of ancient and fertile lithospheric mantle beneath the southwestern United States, Nature, 411, 6973.
  • Lenardic, A., and L. N. Moresi (1999), Some thoughts on the stability of cratonic lithosphere: Effects of buoyancy and viscosity, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 12,74712,759.
  • Lenardic, A., L. Moresi, and H. Muehlhaus (2000), The role of mobile belts for the longevity of deep cratonic lithosphere: The crumple zone model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 12351238.
  • Le Roex, A. P., D. R. Bell, and P. Davis (2003), Petrogenesis of Group 1 kimberlites from Kimberley, South Africa: Evidence from bulk-rock geochemistry, J. Petrol., 44, 22612286.
  • Manley, C. R., A. F. Glazner, and G. L. Farmer (2000), Timing of volcanism in the Sierra Nevada of California: Evidence for Pliocene delamination of the batholithic root? Geology, 28, 811814.
  • Marsh, J. S., P. R. Hooper, J. Rehacek, R. A. Duncan, and A. R. Duncan (1997), Stratigraphy and age of Karoo basalts of Lesotho and implications for correlations within the Karoo igneous province, in Large Igneous Provinces: Continental, Oceanic, and Planetary Flood Volcanism, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 100, edited by J. J. Mahoney, and M. F. Coffin, pp. 247272, AGU, Washington, D. C.
  • McBride, J. S., D. D. Lambert, A. Greig, and I. A. Nicholls (1996), Multistage evolution of Australian subcontinental mantle: Re-Os isotopic constraints from Victorian mantle xenoliths, Geology, 24, 631634.
  • McCammon, C. (2001), Geophysics—Deep diamond mysteries, Science, 293, 813814.
  • McCulloch, M. T., and J. A. Gamble (1991), Geochemical and geodynamical constraints on subduction zone magmatism, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 102, 358374.
  • McDonough, W. F. (1990), Constraints on the composition of the continental lithospheric mantle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 101, 118.
  • McDonough, W. F., and S.-S. Sun (1995), The composition of the Earth, Chem. Geol., 120, 223253.
  • Mei, S., and D. L. Kohlstedt (2000a), Influence of water on plastic deformation of olivine aggregates: 1. Diffusion creep regime, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 21,45721,469.
  • Mei, S., and D. L. Kohlstedt (2000b), Influence of water on plastic deformation of olivine aggregates: 2. Dislocation creep regime, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 21,47121,481.
  • Meisel, T., R. J. Walker, and J. W. Morgan (1996), The osmium isotopic composition of the Earth's primitive upper mantle, Nature, 383, 517520.
  • Meisel, T., R. J. Walker, A. J. Irving, and J. P. Lorand (2001), Osmium isotopic compositions of mantle xenoliths: A global perspective, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 65, 13111323.
  • Menzies, A. H., R. W. Carlson, S. B. Shirey, and J. J. Gurney (1999), Re-Os systematics of Newlands peridotite xenoliths: Implications for diamond and lithosphere formation, in Proceedings of the 7th International Kimberlite Conference, edited by J. J. Gurney et al., pp. 566573, Red Roof Design, Cape Town.
  • Menzies, A. H., R. W. Carlson, S. B. Shirey, and J. J. Gurney (2003), Re-Os systematics of diamond-bearing eclogites from the Newlands kimberlite, Lithos, 71, 323336.
  • Menzies, M. A., and C. J. Hawkesworth (1987), Mantle Metasomatism, 472 pp., Elsevier, New York.
  • Menzies, M. A., W.-M. Fan, and M. Zhang (1993), Paleozoic and Cenozoic lithoprobes and the loss of >120 km of Archean lithosphere, Sino-Korean craton, China, in Magmatic Processes and Plate Tectonics, edited by H. M. Prichard et al., pp. 7181, Geol. Soc. of London, London.
  • Moresi, L. N., and A. Lenardic (1997), Three-dimensional numerical simulations of crustal deformation and subcontinental mantle convection, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 150, 233243.
  • Nixon, P. H. (1987), Mantle Xenoliths, John Wiley, Hoboken, N. J.
  • Nixon, P. H., and F. R. Boyd (1979), Garnet bearing lherzolites and discrete nodule suites from the Malaita alnoite, Solomon Islands, S. W. Pacific and their bearing on oceanic mantle composition and geotherm, in The Mantle Sample: Inclusions in Kimberlites and Other Volcanics, edited by F. R. Boyd, and H. O. A. Meyer, pp. 400423, AGU, Washington, D. C.
  • Nyblade, A. A. (1999), Heat flow and the structure of Precambrian lithosphere, Lithos, 48, 8191.
  • Nyblade, A. A., and H. N. Pollack (1993), A global analysis of heat flow from Precambrian terrains: Implications for the thermal structure of Archean and Proterozoic lithosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 12,20712,218.
  • Palme, H., and H. S. C. O'Neill (2003), Cosmochemical estimates of mantle composition, in Treatise on Geochemistry, vol. 2, The Mantle and Core, edited by R. W. Carlson, H. D. Holland, and K. K. Turekian, pp. 138, Elsevier, New York.
  • Pearson, D. G., and G. M. Nowell (2002), The continental lithospheric mantle reservoir: Characteristics and significance as a mantle reservoir, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 360, 128.
  • Pearson, D. G., and S. B. Shirey (1999), Isotopic dating of diamonds, in Applications of Radiogenic Isotopes to Ore Deposit Research and Exploration, edited by D. Lambert, and J. Ruiz, pp. 143171, Soc. of Econ. Geol., Boulder, Colo.
  • Pearson, D. G., R. W. Carlson, S. B. Shirey, F. R. Boyd, and P. H. Nixon (1995a), Stabilization of Archean lithospheric mantle: A Re-Os isotope study of peridotite xenoliths from the Kaapvaal craton, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 134, 341357.
  • Pearson, D. G., S. B. Shirey, R. W. Carlson, F. R. Boyd, N. P. Pokhilenko, and N. Shimizu (1995b), Re-Os, Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope evidence for thick Archaean lithospheric mantle beneath the Siberian craton modified by multistage metasomatism, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 59, 959977.
  • Pearson, D. G., G. A. Snyder, S. B. Shirey, L. A. Taylor, R. W. Carlson, and N. V. Sobolev (1995c), Archaean Re-Os age for Siberian eclogites and constraints on Archaean tectonics, Nature, 374, 711713.
  • Pearson, D. G., S. B. Shirey, G. P. Bulanova, R. W. Carlson, and H. J. Milledge (1998a), Re-Os isotope measurements of single sulfide inclusions in a Siberian diamond and its nitrogen aggregation systematics, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63, 703711.
  • Pearson, D. G., S. B. Shirey, J. W. Harris, and R. W. Carlson (1998b), Sulfide inclusions in diamonds from the Koffiefontein kimberlite, S Africa: Constraints on diamond ages and mantle Re-Os systematics, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 160, 311326.
  • Pearson, D. G., S. B. Shirey, G. P. Bulanova, R. W. Carlson, and H. J. Milledge (1999), Dating and paragenetic distinction of diamonds using the Re-Os isotope system: Application to some Siberian diamonds, in Proceedings of the 7th International Kimberlite Conference, edited by J. J. Gurney et al., pp. 637643, Red Roof Design, Cape Town.
  • Pearson, D. G., G. J. Irvine, R. W. Carlson, M. G. Kopylova, and D. A. Ionov (2002), The development of lithospheric keels beneath the earliest continents: Time constraints using PGE and Re-Os isotope systematics, in The Early Earth: Physical, Chemical and Biological Development, edited by C. M. R. Fowler, C. J. Ebinger, and C. J. Hawkesworth, Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ., 199, 6590.
  • Pearson, D. G., D. Canil, and S. B. Shirey (2003), Mantle samples included in volcanic rocks: Xenoliths and diamonds, in Treatise on Geochemistry, vol. 2, The Mantle and Core, edited by R. W. Carlson, H. D. Holland, and K. K. Turekian, pp. 171275, Elsevier, New York.
  • Pearson, D. G., G. J. Irvine, D. A. Ionov, F. R. Boyd, and G. E. Dreibus (2004), Re-Os isotope systematics and platinum group element fractionation during mantle melt extraction: A study of massif and xenolith peridotite suites, Chem. Geol., 208, 2959.
  • Pearson, N. J., O. Alard, W. L. Griffin, S. E. Jackson, and S. Y. O'Reilly (2002), In situ measurement of Re-Os isotopes in mantle sulfides by laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled mass spectrometry: Analytical methods and preliminary results, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 66, 10371050.
  • Peate, D. W. (1997), The Parana-Etendeka Province, in Large Igneous Provinces: Continental, Oceanic, and Planetary Flood Volcanism, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 1, edited by J. J. Mahoney, and M. F. Coffin, pp. 217245, AGU, Washington, D. C.
  • Peslier, A. H., L. Reisberg, J. Ludden, and D. Francis (2000a), Os isotopic systematics in mantle xenoliths: Age constraints on the Canadian Cordillera lithosphere, Chem. Geol., 166, 85101.
  • Peslier, A. H., L. Reisberg, J. Ludden, and D. Francis (2000b), Re-Os constraints on harzburgite and lherzolite formation in the lithospheric mantle: A study of northern Canadian Cordillera xenoliths, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 64, 30613071.
  • Polet, J., and D. L. Anderson (1995), Depth extent of cratons as inferred from tomographic studies, Geology, 23, 205208.
  • Pollack, H. N. (1986), Cratonization and thermal evolution of the mantle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 80, 175182.
  • Pollack, H. N., and D. S. Chapman (1977), On the regional variation of heat flow, geotherms, and the thickness of the lithosphere, Tectonophysics, 38, 279296.
  • Poudjom Djomani, Y. H., S. Y. O'Reilly, W. L. Griffin, and P. Morgan (2001), The density structure of subcontinental lithosphere through time, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 184, 605621.
  • Reisberg, L. C., and J.-P. Lorand (1995), Longevity of sub-continental mantle lithosphere from osmium isotope systematics in orogenic peridotite massifs, Nature, 376, 159162.
  • Reisberg, L. C., C. J. Allegre, and J.-M. Luck (1991), The Re-Os systematics of the Ronda ultramafic complex in southern Spain, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 105, 196213.
  • Richards, M. A., and B. H. Hager (1988), The Earth's geoid and the large-scale structure of mantle convection, in The Physics of Planets, edited by S. K. Runcorn, pp. 247272, John Wiley, Hoboken, N. J.
  • Richards, M. A., R. A. Duncan, and V. E. Courtillot (1989), Flood basalts and hot-spot tracks: Plume heads and tails, Science, 246, 103107.
  • Richardson, S. H., J. J. Gurney, A. J. Erlank, and J. W. Harris (1984), Origin of diamonds in old enriched mantle, Nature, 310, 198202.
  • Richardson, S. H., A. J. Erlank, and S. R. Hart (1985), Kimberlite-borne garnet peridotite xenoliths from old enriched subcontinental lithosphere, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 75, 116128.
  • Richardson, S. H., J. W. Harris, and J. J. Gurney (1993), Three generations of diamonds from old continental mantle, Nature, 366, 256258.
  • Richardson, S. H., S. B. Shirey, J. W. Harris, and R. W. Carlson (2001), Archean subduction recorded by Re-Os isotopes in eclogitic sulfide inclusions in Kimberley diamonds, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 191, 257266.
  • Richardson, S. H., S. B. Shirey, and J. W. Harris (2004), Episodic diamond genesis at Jwaneng, Botswana and implications for Kaapvaal craton evolution, Lithos, 77, 143154.
  • Ringwood, A. E. (1969), Composition of the crust and upper mantle, in The Earth's Crust and Upper Mantle, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 13, edited by P. J. Hart, pp. 117, AGU, Washington, D. C.
  • Ritsema, J., and R. M. Allen (2003), The elusive mantle plume, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 207, 112.
  • Ritsema, J., H. J. van Heijst, and J. H. Woodhouse (2004), Global transition zone tomography, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B02302, doi:10.1029/2003JB002610.
  • Rudnick, R. L. (1995), Making continental crust, Nature, 378, 571578.
  • Rudnick, R. L., and A. A. Nyblade (1999), The thickness and heat production of Archean lithosphere: Constraints from xenolith thermobarometry and surface heat flow, in Mantle Petrology: Field Observations and High Pressure Experimentation, edited by Y. Fei, C. Bertka, and B. O. Mysen, pp. 312, Geochem. Soc., Houston, Tex.
  • Rudnick, R. L., W. F. McDonough, and A. Orpin (1994), Northern Tanzanian peridotite xenoliths: A comparison with Kaapvaal peridotites and inferences on metasomatic interactions, in Kimberlites, Related Rocks and Mantle Xenoliths, edited by H. O. A. Meye, and O. Leonardos, pp. 336353, Co. de Pesqui. de Recursos Miner, Brasilia.
  • Rudnick, R. L., W. F. McDonough, and R. J. O'Connell (1998), Thermal structure, thickness and composition of continental lithosphere, Chem. Geol., 145, 395411.
  • Ruiz, J., T. E. McCandless, and H. H. Helmstaedt (1999), Re-Os model ages for eclogite xenoliths from the Colorado Plateau, USA, Proceedings of the 7th International Kimberlite Conference, edited by J. J. Gurney et al., pp. 436740, Red Roof Design, Cape Town.
  • Saleeby, J. B., and Z. Foster (2004), Topographic response to mantle lithosphere removal in the southern Sierra Nevada region, California, Geology, 32, 245248.
  • Schimmel, M., M. Assumpção, and J. C. VanDecar (2003), Seismic velocity anomalies beneath SE Brazil from P and S wave travel time inversions, J. Geophys. Res., 108(B4), 2191, doi:10.1029/2001JB000187.
  • Schmidt, G., and J. Snow (2002), Os isotopes in mantle xenoliths from the Eifel volcanic field and the Vogelsberg (Germany): Age constraints on the lithospheric mantle, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 143, 694705.
  • Schmidt, M. W., and S. Poli (1998), Experimentally based water budgets for dehydrating slabs and consequences for arc magma generation, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 163, 361379.
  • Schulze, D. J. (1989), Constraints on the abundance of eclogite in the upper mantle, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 42054212.
  • Scott-Smith, B. H., R. V. Danchin, J. W. Harris, and K. J. Stracke (1984), Kimberlites near Orroroo, South Australia, in Kimberlites II: The Mantle and Crust-Mantle Relationships, edited by J. Kornprobst, pp. 121142, Elsevier, New York.
  • Shapiro, S. S., B. H. Hager, and T. H. Jordan (1999a), The continental tectosphere and the Earth's long-wavelength gravity field, Lithos, 48, 135152.
  • Shapiro, S. S., B. H. Hager, and T. H. Jordan (1999b), Stability and dynamics of the continental tectosphere, Lithos, 48, 115133.
  • Shimizu, N. (1999), Young geochemical features in cratonic peridotites from southern Africa and Siberia, in Mantle Petrology: Field Observations and High-Pressure Experimentation: A Tribute to Francis R. (Joe) Boyd, edited by Y. Fei, C. M. Bertka, and B. O. Mysen, Spec. Publ. Geochem. Soc., 6, 4755.
  • Shirey, S. B., and R. J. Walker (1998), The Re-Os isotope system in cosmochemistry and high-temperature geochemistry, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 26, 423500.
  • Shirey, S. B., J. W. Harris, S. H. Richardson, M. J. Fouch, D. E. James, P. Cartigny, P. Deines, and F. Viljoen (2002), Diamond genesis, seismic structure, and evolution of the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe craton, Science, 297, 16831686.
  • Smith, C. B., H. L. Allsopp, J. D. Kramers, G. Hutchinson, and J. C. Roddick (1985), Emplacement ages of Jurassic-Cretaceous South African kimberlites by the Rb-Sr method on phlogopite and whole-rock samples, Trans. Geol. Soc. S. Africa, 88, 249266.
  • Smith, D. (1999), Temperatures and pressures of mineral equilibration in peridotite xenoliths: Review, discussion and implications, in Mantle Petrology: Field Observations and High-Pressure Experimentation: A Tribute to Francis R. (Joe) Boyd, edited by Y. Fei, C. Bertka, and B. O. Mysen, Spec. Publ. Geochem. Soc., 6, 171188.
  • Smith, D., and F. R. Boyd (1987), Compositional heterogeneities in a high-temperature lherzolite nodule and implications for mantle processes, in Mantle Xenoliths, edited by P. H. Nixon, pp. 551561, John Wiley, Hoboken, N. J.
  • Snow, J. E., G. Schmidt, and E. Rampone (2000), Os isotopes and highly siderophile elements (HSE) in the Ligurian ophiolites, Italy, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 175, 119132.
  • Snyder, D. B., M. G. Bostock, and G. D. Lockhart (2003), Two anisotropic layers in the Slave craton, Lithos, 71, 529539.
  • Stachel, T., K. S. Viljoen, G. Brey, and J. W. Harris (1998), Metasomatic processes in lherzolitic and harzburgitic domains of diamondiferous lithospheric mantle: REE in garnets and xenoliths and inclusions in diamonds, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 159, 112.
  • Stachel, T., J. W. Harris, and G. P. Brey (1999), REE patterns of peridotitic and eclogitic inclusions in diamonds from Mwadui (Tanzania), in Proc. 7th Int. Kimberlite Conf., edited by J. J. Gurney et al., pp. 829835, Red Roof Design, Cape Town.
  • Tankard, A. J., M. P. A. Jackson, K. A. Eriksson, D. K. Hobday, D. R. Hunter, and W. E. L. Minter (1982), Crustal Evolution of Southern Africa: 3.8 Billion Years of Earth History, 523 pp., Springer, New York.
  • Taylor, S. R., and S. M. McLennan (1985), The Continental Crust: Its Composition and Evolution, 312 pp., Blackwell, Malden, Mass.
  • VanDecar, J. C., D. E. James, and M. Assumpção (1995), Seismic evidence for a fossil mantle plume beneath South America and implications for plate driving forces, Nature, 378, 2531.
  • van der Hilst, R. D., and W. F. McDonough (1999), Composition, Deep Structure and Evolution of Continents, 342 pp., Elsevier, New York.
  • van der Lee, S. (2002), High-resolution estimates of lithospheric thickness from Missouri to Massachusetts, USA, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 204, 1523.
  • van der Lee, S., and G. Nolet (1997), The upper mantle S velocity structure of North America, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 22,81522,838.
  • van Keken, P. E., E. H. Hauri, and C. J. Ballentine (2002), Mantle mixing: The generation, preservation, and destruction of chemical heterogeneity, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 30, 493525.
  • Walker, R. J., R. W. Carlson, S. B. Shirey, and F. R. Boyd (1989), Os, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope systematics of southern African peridotite xenoliths: Implications for the chemical evolution of subcontinental mantle, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 53, 15831595.
  • Walter, M. J. (1999), Melting residues of fertile peridotite and the origin of cratonic lithosphere, in Mantle Petrology: Field Observations and High-Pressure Experimentation: A Tribute to Francis R. (Joe) Boyd, edited by Y. Fei, C. M. Bertka, and B. O. Mysen, Spec. Publ. Geochem. Soc., 6, 225239.
  • Walter, M. J. (2003), Melt extraction and compositional variability in mantle lithosphere, in Treatise on Geochemistry, vol. 2, The Mantle and Core, edited by R. W. Carlson, H. D. Holland, and K. K. Turekian, pp. 363394, Elsevier, New York.
  • Wang, K.-L., S. Y. O'Reilly, W. L. Griffin, S.-L. Chung, and N. J. Pearson (2003), Proterozoic mantle lithosphere beneath the extended margin of the South China Block: In situ Re-Os evidence, Geology, 31, 709712.
  • Weaver, B. L., and J. Tarney (1984), Empirical approach to estimating the composition of the continental crust, Nature, 310, 575577.
  • Webb, S. C., and D. W. Forsyth (1998), Structure of the upper mantle under the EPR from waveform inversion of regional events, Science, 280, 12271229.
  • Westerlund, K. J., S. B. Shirey, S. H. Richardson, J. J. Gurney, and J. W. Harris (2003), Re-Os isotope systematics of peridotitic diamond inclusion sulfides from the Panda kimberlite, Slave craton, paper presented at 8th International Kimberlite Conference, Vancouver, B. C., Canada.
  • Wu, F., R. J. Walker, X. Ren, D. Sun, X. Zhou, M. F. Horan, A. D. Brandon, and C. R. Neal (2003), Osmium isotopic constraints on the age of lithospheric mantle beneath northeastern China, Chem. Geol., 196, 107129.
  • Zhang, J., and C. Herzberg (1994), Melting experiments on anhydrous peridotite KLB-1 from 5.0 to 22.5 GPa, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 17,72917,742.