Article first published online: 3 JUN 2011
©2005. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union
Volume 86, Issue 32, pages 293–298, 9 August 2005
How to Cite
2005), Antarctic science, Eos Trans. AGU, 86(32), 293–298, doi:10.1029/2005EO320003.(
- Issue published online: 3 JUN 2011
- Article first published online: 3 JUN 2011
- Cited By
Once upon a time, dinosaurs roamed Antarctica and swam in its seas. Since then, life evolved as the climate cooled into the ice ages. Life will no doubt continue to evolve there as the globe now warms. But nowadays, humans are having a profound and direct effect on life in Antarctica, the sub-Antarctic islands, and the surrounding Southern Ocean, which are being invaded by a wide range of alien species including microbes, algae, fungi, bryophytes, land plants, invertebrates, fish, birds, and mammals.