Model development and simulations represent a comprehensive synthesis of observations with advances in numerous disciplines (physics; mathematics; and atmospheric, oceanic, cryospheric, and related sciences), enabling hypothesis testing via numerical experiments. For the Arctic Ocean, modeling has become one of the major instruments for understanding past conditions and explaining recently observed changes.
In this context, the international Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (AOMiphttp://fish.cims.nyu.edu/project_aomip/overview. html) has investigated various aspects of ocean and sea ice changes for the time period 1948 to present. Among the major AOMIP themes are investigations of the origin and variability of Atlantic water (AW) circulation, mechanisms of accumulation and release of fresh water (FW), causes of sea level rise, and the role of tides in shaping climate.