Long-term behaviour of ENSO: Interactions with the PDO over the past 400 years inferred from paleoclimate records
Article first published online: 25 MAR 2006
Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.
Geophysical Research Letters
Volume 33, Issue 6, March 2006
How to Cite
2006), Long-term behaviour of ENSO: Interactions with the PDO over the past 400 years inferred from paleoclimate records, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L06712, doi:10.1029/2005GL025052., and (
- Issue published online: 25 MAR 2006
- Article first published online: 25 MAR 2006
- Manuscript Accepted: 3 FEB 2006
- Manuscript Revised: 31 JAN 2006
- Manuscript Received: 26 OCT 2005
 This study uses proxy climate records derived from paleoclimate data to investigate the long-term behaviour of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During the past 400 years, climate shifts associated with changes in the PDO are shown to have occurred with a similar frequency to those documented in the 20th Century. Importantly, phase changes in the PDO have a propensity to coincide with changes in the relative frequency of ENSO events, where the positive phase of the PDO is associated with an enhanced frequency of El Niño events, while the negative phase is shown to be more favourable for the development of La Niña events.