AIRS and MODIS on the EOS Aqua spacecraft collect global observations of the Earth's upwelling infrared radiance for numerous remote sensing and climate related applications. This paper presents comparisons of the AIRS and MODIS radiance observations and illustrates the utility of using high–spectral resolution observations to create a highly accurate assessment of broadband sensor calibration. In the analysis, the high–spectral resolution AIRS spectra are reduced to MODIS spectral resolution, and the high–spatial resolution MODIS data are reduced to AIRS spatial resolution for global data collected on 6 September 2002 and 18 February 2004. Spatially uniform scenes are selected, and the observed differences are characterized as a function of several parameters including scene temperature, sensor scan (view) angle, and solar zenith angle. The comparisons are in general very good with respect to the expected radiometric accuracies of the sensors, with mean brightness temperature differences of 0.1 K or less for many of the MODIS bands. Uncertainties of these determinations range from near 0 K for window region bands to as large as 0.2 K for other bands. For MODIS water vapor bands 27 (6.8 μm) and 28 (7.3 μm) and temperature sounding bands 34 (13.7 μm), 35 (13.9 μm), and 36 (14.2 μm), the differences exhibit a dependence on scene temperature, with peak differences exceeding 1 K for bands 27 and 36. Differences as a function of scan angle are 0.4 K or less for all bands, and scan angles but clear trends are defined. Results for the 2 days demonstrate good reproducibility with changes in mean differences of 0.1 K or less for most bands.